Sno Title Type URL Theme Country Abstract Regions Keywords Rank Comments Available in DC
1
Prasad, H.A.C. and J.S.Kochher. 2009. Climate change and India - Some major issues and policy implications. Working paper No 2/2009-DEA. Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Government of India. New Delhi.
Documents and Reports
http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CBIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Ffinmin.nic.in%2FWorkingPaper%2FWorking%2520paper%2520Climate%2520Change.pdf&rct=j&q=Prasad%2C%20H.A.C.%20and%20J.S.Kochher
Climate change and fisheries N/a
This paper in Part I examines the genesis of Climate Change which has been referred to as the defining human development issue of our generation. In Part II of the paper, major international developments related to Climate Change including the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC ), 1992 and Kyoto Protocol are described along with significant meetings like those at Bali and Bangkok and outcomes at these international exchanges. In Part III, while comparing perspectives of developed and developing countries on Climate Change, a detailed examination is made of the issues involved and India’ s view point, especially the arguments for India to take up GHG abatement and India's response to each of these at the international forums.
Asia
Climate Change,Policy
3
No
2
Chakrabarti, P.G.Dhar. 2011. Disaster management & climate change: Indian policy frameworks and key challenges. Centre for Social Markets, Bangalore
Documents and Reports
http://www.csmworld.org/Static-Content/news-and-publication-new.html
Climate change and fisheries N/a
For decades disaster management in India remained an issue of providing relief and rehabilitation assistance to people affected by natural disasters. Successive disasters and global movements for disaster reduction since the nineties have triggered a paradigm shift in disaster management leading to the creation of new legal and institutional frameworks for disaster management in India. A host of new initiatives have been taken to reduce the risks of disasters. While many of these efforts can help reduce the risks of some disasters, climate change may well enhance the risks of hydro-meteorological disasters and create
new and unforeseen challenges to risk management. The Government of India has responded to these challenges by taking new policy and programme initiatives for mitigating the risks of climate change and adapting to the changing climate. This paper argues that the parallel initiatives of disaster and climate risk
management are still disjointed, however, and require greater interface and integration at policy, programme and institutional levels to create synergies in approach and strategies for better risk management in India.
Asia
Climate,Climate Change
3
No
3
Campos, Maria Rebecca. 2009. Adaptation of fishing communities in the Philippines to climate change. IOF Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Sciences (6 ).
Documents and Reports
http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/6/35/352016
Climate change and adaptation N/a
Asia
Climate Change,Adaptation
3
No
4
Hedger, Merylyn and S. Vaideeswaran. 2010. Action on climate change in Orissa: Scoping report. Report Commissioned by DFID. IDS.
Documents and Reports
http://www.ids.ac.uk/index.cfm?objectid=5A46D5DD-C013-2354-F0EEAF810D8EA5DE
Climate change and fisheries N/a
In this report, each sector is analysed with reference to relevant background issues at state and national levels, key issues and concerns are identified and current and potential responses at state level indicated. For each sector, a table is also provided summarising the climate change context, the necessary responses and the state level institutions which will be involved.

Two sets of sectors are reviewed in different sections: those which relate closely to energy issues and those where the major issues arise from climate change impacts and adaptation. Energy sectors are; industry, energy, transport, mining, infrastructure, and urban. Sectors where actions will be dominated with adaptation to the serious impacts of climate change are: water, forestry, agriculture, animal husbandry, coasts, fisheries, health and social vulnerability. Obviously most sectors involve both dimensions, for example, opportunities exist to utilise the carbon sequestration function of trees and soils in forestry and agriculture, and critical industry and power infrastructure may be vulnerable to more intense and extreme weather events in the coastal zone. The report recommends that developing integrated strategies for these cross cutting issues will need to be considered further in the next stage and suggests key dimensions.
Asia
Climate Change,Adaptation,Policy
4
No
5
Government of New Zealand. 2010. Energy efficient ways: to improve the economic bottom line of your fishing business. Ministry for the Environment, Government of New Zealand.
Documents and Reports
http://www.energyfed.org.nz/Fishing.pdf
Climate change and fisheries N/a
Oceania
Climate Change,Energy efficient,Fuel
4
No
6
Dontwi, Joyce; I.K. Dontwi; F.N.Buabeng; and S. Ashong. Vulnerability and adaptation assessment for climate change impacts on fisheries in Ghana. Netherlands climate assistance programme.
Documents and Reports
http://www.nlcap.net/fileadmin/.../FISHERIES_DRAFT_FINAL_REPORT.pdf
Climate change and adaptation N/a
Considering the fact that nearly 25% of the Ghanaian people live in the coastal zone and about 10% depend on the coastal fishery for livelihood, it is likely that any changes in the production of the fishery may impact on the socio-economic lives of the people. For the past four decades, climatic conditions have been found to be changing in the country. This period coincided with the conspicuous fluctuations in the landings of the most significant pelagic species exploited by the canoe fleet. This study provides an assessment of the influence of precipitation and sea surface temperature changes on yield and catch of Round Sardinella (Sardinella aurita), anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus), Flat Sardinella (S. maderensis) and Guinea Shrimp (Parapenaeopsis atlantica). The abundance
of these stocks is believed to be correlated with upwelling and sea surface temperature conditions and a local manifestation of global scale climatic changes is suspected to be taking place. The study provides recommendations on flexible fisheries management
Africa
Fisheries,Fish Stock,Climate Change
4
No
7
Keskitalo, E. Carina H.; and Antonina A. Kulyasova. 2009. The role of governance in community adaptation to climate change. Polar Research (28): 60-70
newsletters
Climate change and adaptation N/a
The capacity to adapt to challenges such as climate change can be seen as largely determined by socioeconomic context or social vulnerability. This article examines the adaptive capacity of local actors in response to globalization and climate change, asking: how much of the desirable adaptation can be
undertaken at a local level, and how much is determined by actors at other levels, for instance, when resource conflicts occur? Drawing on case studies of fishing in northern Norway and north-west Russia, the paper shows that adaptive capacity beyond the immediate economic adaptations available to local actors is, to a considerable extent, politically determined within larger governance networks.
Europe
Community,Climate Change,Adaptation
4
No
8
McInerney-Lankford, Siobhan. 2009. Climate change and human rights: An introduction to legal issues. Harvard Environmental Law Review. Volume 33.
newsletters
Climate change and fisheries N/a
This short Paper lays out some of the legal questions that are implicated in the emerging debate on climate change and human rights and suggests ways in which international human rights law could be approached in order to promote clarity in the discourse of human rights and climate change. In Part II, it outlines some of the context that defines the intersection of human
rights and climate change; in Part III, it delineates the different types of questions raised by the interface; and, in Part IV, it offers potential conceptualizations of the relationship between human rights and climate change.
World
Climate Change,Human Rights
4
No
9
Daw, Tim; W. Neil Adger; Katrina Brown; and Marie-Caroline Badjeck. 2009. Climate change and capture fisheries.
0
http://library.enaca.org/emerging_issues/daw_et_al.pdf
Climate change and fisheries N/a
World
Climate Change,Fisheries Management
4
No
10
United Nations. 2009. Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the relationship between climate change and human rights. Human Rights Council, United Nations
Documents and Reports
http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/10session/reports.htm
Climate change and fisheries N/a
This report discusses how observed and projected impacts of climate change have implications for the enjoyment of human rights and for the obligations of States under international human rights law. Chapter I discusses the main features of climate change as defined in the reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and central aspects of current climate change debates under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Chapter II outlines various implications of climate change for human rights, commenting on: (a) the relationship between the environment and human rights; (b) implications of the effects of climate change for the enjoyment of specific rights; (c) vulnerabilities of specific groups; (d) human rights implications of climate change-induced displacement and conflict; and (e) human rights implications of measures to address climate change. Chapter III relates the discussion of the impacts of climate change on human rights with relevant obligations under international human rights law, which are also summarized in annex I to thepresent report. Chapter IV draws conclusions on the relationship between climate change and human rights.
World
Climate Change,Human Rights
5
No
11
Badjeck, Marie-Caroline. 2008. Vulnerability of coastal fishing communities to climate variability and change: implications for fisheries livelihoods and management in Peru. Dissertation. Universitat Bremen. 227p.
books
http://disccrs.org/dissertation_abstract?abs_id=2985
Climate change and fisheries N/a
The warm phase of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is characterized in Peru by positive sea surface temperatures and negative sea level pressure anomalies. Biotic responses to this event range from changes in species composition, abundance and biomass, changes in reproductive success, larval dispersal and recruitment, as well as changes in food availability, competition and predation. This thesis characterizes fishermen livelihoods and how they responded to El Niño events in two sites in the North (Sechura) and South (Pisco) of Peru. Additionally, it explored how institutions enable or constrain fishermen livelihoods and responses to El Niño. While both sites have different histories of ENSO related impacts, they share the fact that the artisanal fishing sector plays an important role in the local economy. Livelihood assets exhibit mixed patterns with Pisco possessing a stronger livelihood platform
in terms of assets but lower incomes than in Sechura. This finding highlights the fact that income is not an accurate measure of resilient livelihoods and needs to be contextualized.
Seasonal migration is a livelihood option practiced by fishermen in both sites depending on seasonality, the de facto open access facilitating fishermen mobility. The thesis also identifies that fishermen are largely dependent on marine resources for their livelihoods, occupational pluralism being low at both sites. Diversification being considered a risk-reduction mechanism and a building block towards resilient livelihoods, the findings suggest that fishermen are vulnerable to external shocks due to their high reliance on fishing activities. Moreover, disturbances do not only include climate variability, but also market changes to which fishermen must adapt.
Latin America
Adaptation,Climate Change,Fishing Communities
5
No
12
Marshall,N.A; P.A.Marshall, J.Tamelander; D. Obura; D.Malleret-King and J.E.Cinner.2010. A framework for social adaptation to climate change: Sustaining tropical coastal communities and industries. Gland, Switzerland, IUCN. 36pp.
books
http://www.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2010-022.pdf
Climate change and adaptation N/a
This book provides a framework for understanding the vulnerability of communities and marine based industries to climate change, both through direct effects and through impacts on ecosystem goods and services. It draws on the most up-to-date thinking on adaptation planning and resilience. We have aimed to provide enough background information for context and sufficient evidence to support broad management decisions.
World
Social Issues,Climate Change,Adaptation
4
No
13
Berkes, Fikret and Dyanna Jolly. 2001. Adapting to climate change: Social-ecological resilience in a Canadian Western Arctic Community. Conservation Ecology 5 (2): 18
newsletters
Climate change and adaptation N/a
This paper examines the questions of adaptation and change in terms of social-ecological resilience using lessons from a place-specific case study. The Inuvialuit people of the small community of Sachs Harbour in Canada's western Arctic have been tracking climate change throughout the 1990s. This paper analyzes the adaptive capacity of this community to deal with climate change. Short-term responses to changes in land-based activities, which are identified as coping mechanisms, are one component of this adaptive capacity. The second component is related to cultural and ecological adaptations of the Inuvialuit for life in a highly variable and uncertain environment; these represent long-term adaptive strategies. These two types of strategies are, infact, on a continuum in space and time. This study suggests new ways in which theory andpractice can be combined by showing how societies may adapt to climate change at multiple scales.
N. America
Culture,Climate Change,Adaptation
4
No
14
Lipset, David. 2011. The tides: masculinity and climate change in coastal Papua New Guinea. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (17): 20-43p.
newsletters
Climate change and fisheries N/a
This paper analyzes the meaning of rising sea-levels among the Murik, who live on the coast in the delta of the Sepik river in Papua New Guinea (PNG), where in late 2007, high tides severely eroded their beaches. It introduces the ancestral chronotype of man in Murik cosmology and colonial history.
Oceania
Climate Change,Culture,Community
3
No
15
Morin, Anne and Lorena Patino. 2010. Background paper on climate change, well-being and human rights. Discussion paper. PRI Project. Government of Canada. 17pp.
Documents and Reports
http://www.policyresearch.gc.ca/doclib/2010-0042-eng.pdf
Climate change and fisheries N/a
This paper traces the historical legal arguments on climate change and human rights, and highlights the Canadian government position on the same. It raises questions on how human rights of highly vulnerable communities would be protected in the light of various adaptation and mitigation measures undertaken.
N. America
Climate Change,Human Rights
4
No
16
Badjeck, Marie-Caroline; Edward H. Allison; Ashley S. Halls and Nicholas K. Dulvy. 2010. Impact of climate variability and change on fishery-based livelihoods. Marine Policy (34): 375-383p.
newsletters
Climate change and fisheries N/a
There is increasing concern over the consequences of global warming for the food security and livelihoods of the world’s 36 million fisherfolk and the nearly 1.5 billion consumers who rely on fish for more than 20% of their dietary animal protein. With mounting evidence of the impacts of climate variability and change on aquatic ecosystems, the resulting impacts on fisheries livelihoods are likely to be significant, but remain a neglected area in climate adaptation policy. Drawing upon research and the available literature, and using a livelihoods framework, this paper synthesizes the pathways through which climate variability and change impact fisherfolk livelihoods at the household and community level. It identifies current and potential adaptation strategies and explore the wider implications for local livelihoods, fisheries management and climate policies. Responses to climate change can be anticipatory or reactive and include: (1) management approaches and policies that build the livelihood asset base, reducing vulnerability to multiple stressors, including climate change; (2) an understanding of current response mechanisms to climate variability and other shocks in order to inform planned adaptation; (3) a recognition of the opportunities that climate change could bring to the sector; (4) adaptive strategies designed with a multi-sector perspective; and (5) a recognition of fisheries potential contribution to mitigation efforts.
World
Adaptation,Policy,Climate Change
4
No
17
Grafton, Quentin.R. 2009. Adaptation to climate change in marine capture fisheries. Marine Policy. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2009.11.011
newsletters
Climate change and fisheries N/a
This paper provides a guide to policy makers and fisheries managers about climate adaptation in marine capture fisheries. It stresses that any policy should be flexible and be able to adjust to unexpected impacts and policy outcomes and, whenever possible, encourage and assist fishers and their communities to autonomously adapt to climate change. It emphasizes that there are ‘win–win’ approaches in terms of best practice fisheries management that will be beneficial in both the present and the future, and these should be implemented regardless of possible climate change impacts.
World
Adaptation,Policy,Climate Change
4
No
18
UNEP. 2008. Climate in peril: a popular guide to the latest IPCC reports. UNEP. 60pp.
Documents and Reports
http://www.grida.no/_res/site/file/publications/ClimateInPeril.pdf
Climate change and fisheries N/a
The main purpose of this short guide is to help bridging the gap between science and policy and to increase public awareness about the urgency of action to combat climate change and its impacts. This booklet is intended for those who do not have the time – and may not have the scientific expertise – to read the entire Synthesis Report from the IPCC.
World
Climate Change,Adaptation
4
No
19
Brander, K.M. 2007. Global fish production and climate change. PNAS. Vol. 104. No. 50. December 11, 2007. 19709-19714p.
newsletters
http://www.pnas.orgcgidoi10.1073pnas.0702059104
Climate change and fisheries N/a
Current global fisheries production of 160million tons is rising as a result of increases in aquaculture production. A number of climate-related threats to both capture fisheries and aquaculture are identified, but there is low confidence in predictions of future fisheries production because of uncertainty over future global aquatic net primary production and the transfer of this production through the food chain to human consumption. Recent changes in the distribution and productivity of a number of fish species can be ascribed with high confidence to regional climate variability, such as the El Nin ˜ o–Southern Oscillation. Future production may increase in some high-latitude regions because of warming and
decreased ice cover, but the dynamics in low latitude regions are governed by different processes, and production may decline as a result of reduced vertical mixing of the water column and, hence, reduced recycling of nutrients. There are strong interactions between the effects of fishing and the effects of climate because fishing reduces the age, size, and geographic diversity of populations and the biodiversity ofmarine ecosystems,making bot hmore sensitive to additional stresses such as climate change. Inland
fisheries are additionally threatened by changes in precipitation and water management. The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events is likely to have a major impact on future fisheries
production in both inland and marine systems. Reducing fishing mortality in the majority of fisheries, which are currently fully exploited or overexploited, is the principal feasible means of reducing the impacts of climate change.
World
Climate Change,Fish Stock,Fisheries
4
No
20
Agrawal, Arun. 2008. The role of local institutions in adaptation to climate change. Paper prepared for the Social Dimensions of Climate Change, Social Development Department, The World Bank, Washington DC, March 5-6, 2008.
Documents and Reports
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTSOCIALDEVELOPMENT/.../updated_ SDCCWorkingPaper_LocalInstitutions.pdf
Climate change and adaptation N/a
This review focuses on the role of local institutions in adaptation to climate change. It does so under the belief that climate impacts will affect disadvantaged social groups more disproportionately, and that local institutions centrally influence how different social groups gain access to and are able to use assets and resources. It suggests that adaptation to climate change is inevitably local and that institutions influence adaptation and climate vulnerability in three critical ways: a) they structure impacts and vulnerability, b) they mediate between individual and collective responses to climate impacts and thereby shape outcomes of adaptation, and c) they act as the means of delivery of external resources to facilitate adaptation, and thus govern access to such resources. The review proposes a focus on different forms of mobility, storage, diversification, communal pooling, and market exchange in rural settings as the basic mechanisms through which households address riskiness of livelihoods. It proposes an institutional linkages framework that highlights the role of institutional partnerships in facilitating adaptation and drawing from social network analysis it presents a conceptual toolkit to analyze institutional partnerships and their impacts on resource access of vulnerable social groups.
World
Institutions,Climate Change,Adaptation
4
No
21
UNESCO and IOC. 2010. Ocean fertilization: A scientific summary for policy makers.
Documents and Reports
http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001906/190674e.pdf
Climate change and fisheries N/a
Concern over human-driven climate change
constraining green-house gas emissions have increased scientific and policy interest in geoengineering − deliberate interventions in the Earth’s climate system that might moderate global warming. Proposed approaches involve either removing carbon di-oxide (CO2) from the atmosphere by biological or chemical means (to reduce the forcing of climate change), or reflecting part of the sun’s energy back into space (to counteract the forcing,
by altering Earth’s radiation budget). Experimental small-scale iron additions have shown increase in biomass of phytoplankton, however large-scale fertilization could have unintended impacts not only locally, but also in space and time. This document focuses only on scientific issues, whilst socio-economic, ethical and legal considerations are also highly important.
World
Climate Change,Ocean fertlization,Mitigation
4
No
22
FAO. 2008. Climate change for fisheries and aquaculture.Presented at the Climate change, energy and food: High-level conference on food security: the challenges of climate change and bioenergy
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/foodclimate/expert/em7/en/
Climate change and fisheries N/a
This summary document reviews: the predicted impacts of climate change on physical and ecological features of aquatic systems and their impacts on the fisheries and aquaculture sector; the role of the sector in climate change mitigation; and the opportunities and threats to people and communities dependent on the sector as determined by their vulnerability and potential for adaptation.
World
Climate Change,Fisheries,Adaptation
5
No
23
Jagtap, Tanaji G. and Vinod L. Nagle. 2007. Response and adaptability of mangrove habitats from Indian subcontinent to changing climate. Ambio 36 (4): 328-334pp.
newsletters
Climate change and fisheries N/a
Mangroves, a predominant coastal habitat in the tropics, are constantly threatened by various anthropogenic pressures deteriorating them to a great extent. Global emissions of green house gases (GHGs) are likely to raise the world temperature and the sea level at the rate of 0.3 ºC and 6 mm 10 Yr-1 by the year 2100. Mangrove habitats would be more vulnerable to climatic changes and resultant sea level rise (SLR) because of their unique location at the interface of the sea, by altering eco-biological processes. It may extend the intertidal and supra tidal zones further inland resulting changes in existing ecological set up. The limitation of the landward margin would cause vertical rise resulting in water logging ultimately killing mangroves and dependent biota. The present document describes mangrove habitats and related issues from the Indian subcontinent in the context of climate variations and SLR, and recommends integrated long term monitoring.
World
Climate Change,Mangroves,Sea Level Rise
4
No
24
Nicholls, R.J., P.P. Wong, V.R. Burkett, J.O. Codignotto, J.E. Hay, R.F. McLean, S. Ragoonaden and C.D. Woodroffe, 2007: Coastal systems and low-lying areas. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 315-356
Documents and Reports
http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch6.html
Climate change and adaptation N/a
This chapter presents a global perspective on the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise on coastal and adjoining low-lying areas, with an emphasis on post-2000 insights. Here,coastal systems are considered as the interacting low-lying areas and shallow coastal waters, including their human components. This chapter includes an assessment of current sensitivity and vulnerability, the key changes that coastal systems may undergo in response to climate and sea-level change, including costs and other socio-economic aspects, the potential for adaptation, and the implications for sustainable development. Given that there are strong interactions both within and between the natural and human sub-systems in the coastal system, this chapter takes an integrated perspective of the coastal zone and its management, insofar as the published literature permits.
World
Vulnerability,Sea Level Rise,Coastal Areas,Climate Change,Adaptation
5
No
25
Cruz, R.V., H. Harasawa, M. Lal, S. Wu, Y. Anokhin, B. Punsalmaa, Y. Honda, M. Jafari, C. Li and N. Huu Ninh, 2007: Asia. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 469-506.
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation N/a
Marine and coastal ecosystems in Asia are likely to be affected by sea-level rise and temperature increases (high confidence). Projected sea-level rise is very likely to result in significant losses of coastal ecosystems and a million or so people along the coasts of South and South-East Asia will likely be at risk from flooding (high confidence). Sea-water intrusion due to sea-level rise and declining river runoff is likely to increase the habitat of brackish water fisheries but coastal inundation is likely to seriously affect the aquaculture industry and infrastructure particularly in heavily-populated megadeltas (high confidence). Stability of wetlands, mangroves and coral reefs around Asia is likely to be increasingly threatened (high confidence).
Recent risk analysis of coral reef suggests that between 24%and 30% of the reefs in Asia are likely to be lost during the next 10 years and 30 years, respectively (medium confidence). Increases in endemic morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoeal
disease primarily associated with climate change are expected in South and South-East Asia (high confidence). Increases in coastal water temperature would exacerbate the abundance and/or toxicity of cholera in south Asia (high confidence). Natural habitats of vector-borne and water-borne diseases in
north Asia are likely to expand in the future (medium
confidence).
Asia
Coastal Areas,Climate Change,Adaptation
4
No
26
D' Souza, John and Walter Mendoza. 2009. The Coast isn't clear: Climate change & India's coastal communities: regional notes on climate change and what we must do about it. Indian Network on Ethics and Climate Change (INECC) and CED, Bangalore.
Documents and Reports
Climate change and fisheries N/a
Asia
Climate Change,Coastal Areas
3
No
27
Vivekanandan. E. 2011. Options on fisheries and aquaculture for coping with climate change in South Asia. In R. Lal et al (eds). Climate change and food security in South Asia. Springer publications.
books
Climate change and fisheries N/a
Climate change may exacerbate the current situation in fisheries in South Asia. The potential outcome for fisheries may be decrease in production and value of coastal and inland fisheries, and decline in the economic returns from fishing operations. The potential outcome for aquaculture may be higher capital, operating and insurance costs, loss of fish stocks, damage to facilities, conflict with other water users, reduced production capacity and increased per unit production costs.
Asia
Climate Change,Fisheries,Aquaculture
4
No
28
Ayyappan, S. & A. Gopalakrishnan (2008). Resilience in Fisheries and Sustainability of Aquaculture.pp 1-9,In: Souvenir, 8th Indian Fisheries Forum (IFF) at Kolkata during 22 – 26 November, 2008,Kolkata, India. 115p.
books
Climate change and fisheries N/a
Over the last four decades, the aquatic systems of the globe have undergone a rapid transition. Worldwide per capita fish consumption nearly doubled from about 8 kg in the early 1950s to 15.8 kg in 2006. Fish exports from the developing countries have surpassed export of traditional crops and meat. A study by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) projects a global average per caput demand for all seafood to be about 18.4 kg by 2010 and 19.1 kg by 2015. The study also highlighted that developing countries already produce and consume more fish than developed countries and it predicts that the dominance of developing countries will grow further to 2020.
World
Climate Change,Fisheries,Aquaculture
4
No
29
UNFCCC. 2007. Background paper on Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Asia. UNFCCC
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation N/a
The paper provides an overview of general social and environmental conditions in this region. It outlines the vulnerability of the Asian region to climate change, the current status of adaptation assessments, and the implementation of adaptation options, taking into account sub-regional and national differences. Asia is a challenging region because of its geographical expanse and diversity, political circumstances and varying levels of implementation of adaptation action.
World
Climate Change,Adaptation
4
No
30
Mukherjee, Neela and Madhumita Parihari. 2009. Climate change and community adaptation initiative: A case study of seven village communities and local CBO, West Bengal, India.
Documents and Reports
http://community.eldis.org/.59cf7a21/cmd.233/enclosure..59cf7a22
Climate change and adaptation N/a
Asia
Climate Change,Adaptation
4
No
31
Practical Action. Promoting adaptation to climate change in Bangladesh
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation N/a
This paper outlines the principals of community based adaptation, and illustrates it further with examples from Practical Action's experiences. The paper provides key messages for those responsible for addressing the impacts of climate change in Bangladesh.
Asia
Climate Change,Adaptation
5
No
32
Selby, Sarah and Courtenay Cabot Venton. 2009. Addressing the humanitaraian challenges of climate change: regional and national perspectives- case studies on climate change adaptation. Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Task Force on Climate Change
Documents and Reports
http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/iasc
Climate change and adaptation N/a
IASC practitioners have contributed a number of case studies, which showcase good practice in addressing the challenges of climate change. These are documented in this report. The 19 case studies showcased in this report primarily focus on firstly expanding and improving activities to prepare for and respond to climate risks; and secondly livelihood strengthening, natural resource management and health related adaptation projects, notably to secure sustainable sources of food and water security and build resilience to climate change.
World
Health,Climate Change,Adaptation
4
No
33
Tan, Raymond R. and Alvin B. Culaba. 2009. Estimating the carbon footprint of tuna fisheries. WWF
Documents and Reports
assets.panda.org/.../estimating_the_carbon_footprint_of_tuna_fisheries_ 9may2009.pdf
Climate change and fisheries N/a
This report gives the findings of a study commissioned by WWF to estimate the carbon footprint of tuna fisheries. Carbon footprint, which indicates the carbon dioxide emissions generated by a product system or supply chain per unit of output on a life cycle basis, provides a quantitative index of potential adverse impacts with respect to climate change. The carbon footprint can be computed using extended Leontief input-output models based on “top-down” or “bottom-up” data. Initial attempts using top-down data appear to underestimate the total carbon footprint. The initial estimates were revised using activity- and process-based (“bottom-up”) data for different types of fishing gear, as well as various alternative scenarios for downstream processing and logistics. One of the main findings is that fishery fleet fuel consumption is typically the largest contributor to overall carbon footprint. Purse seine fishing gives the lowest carbon footprint per kg of landed catch, while long line gear has the largest footprint. Furthermore, the footprint figures are highly sensitive to yields, which then implies that carbon footprint reduction is compatible with increasing fishery profitability. The other major contributors to the overall carbon footprint are cannery operations and transportation by air. Cold storage, on the other hand, has a relatively minor contribution.
World
Tuna,Carbon Footprint,Climate Change
5
No
34
Swartz, Wilf; Enric Sala; Sean Tracey; Reg Watson and Daniel Pauly. 2010. The Spatial expansion and ecological footprint of fisheries (1950 to present). Plos One (5) 12: e15143.doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015143
newsletters
Climate change and fisheries N/a
Using estimates of the primary production required(PPR) to support fisheries catches (a measure ofthe footprint of fishing), this paper analyzes the geographical expansion of the global marine fisheries from 1950 to 2005. Using mult iplethreshold levels of PPR as percentage of local primary production to define ‘fisheries exploitation’ and applied them to the global dataset of spatially explic it marine fisheries catches. This approach assigns exploitation status across a 0.5 latitude/longitude ocean grid system and trace the change in their status over the 56-year time period. This result highlights the global scale expansion in marine fisheries, from the coastal waters off North Atlantic and West Pacific to the waters in the Southern Hemisphere and into the high seas. The southward expansion of fisheries occurred at a rate of almost one degree latitude per year, with the greatest period of expansion occurring in the 1980s and early 1990s. By the mid 1990s, a third of the world's ocean, and two-thirds of continental shelves, were exploited at a level where PPR of fisheries exceed 10% of PP, leaving only unproductive waters of high seas, and relatively inaccessible waters in the Arctic and Antarctic as the last remaining ‘frontiers.’ The growth in marine fisheries catches for more than half a century was only made possible through exploitation of new fishing grounds. Their rapidly diminishing number indicates a global limit to growth and highlights the urgent need for a transition to sustainable fishing through reduction of PPR.
World
Climate Change,Fisheries,Primary Productivity
2
No
35
Branch, Trevor A.; Reg Watson; Elizabeth A. Fulton; Simon Jennings; Carey R. McGilliard; Grace T. Pablico; Daniel Ricard and Sean R. Tracey. 2010. The trophic fingerprint of marine fisheries. Nature (468): 431-435pp.
newsletters
Climate change and fisheries N/a
Biodiversity indicators provide a vital window on the state of the planet, guiding policy development and management. The most widely adopted marine indicator is mean trophic level (MTL) from catches, intended to detect shifts fromhigh-trophic-level predators to low-trophic-level invertebrates and plankton-feeder. This indicator underpins reported trends in human impacts, declining when predators collapse (‘‘fishing down marine food webs’’) and
when low-trophic-level fisheries expand (‘‘fishing through marine food webs’’). The assumption is that catch MTLmeasures changes in ecosystem MTL and biodiversity. Here this paper combines model predictions with global assessments of MTL from catches, trawl surveys and fisheries stock assessments and find that catch MTL does not reliably predict changes in marine ecosystems. Instead, catch MTL trends often diverge from ecosystem MTL trends obtained from surveys and assessments. In contrast to previous findings of rapid declines in catch MTL, observes recent
increases in catch, survey and assessment MTL. However, catches from most trophic levels are rising, which can intensify fishery collapses even when MTL trends are stable or increasing. To detect fishing impacts on marine biodiversity, we recommend greater efforts to measure true abundance trends for marine species, especially those most vulnerable to fishing.
World
Climate Change,Fisheries
3
No
36
Dittel, Maja.A; Christien Absil; and Monica Verbeek. 2009. Reducing the footprint: moving towards low impact fisheries
Documents and Reports
www.seas-at-risk.org
Climate change and fisheries N/a
This brochure is based on the report ‘Moving towards low impact fisheries in Europe: policy hurdles and actions’, which was commissioned by Seas at Risk in 2009. The report suggests possible gear shifts to reduce direct and indirect environmental impacts of fishing activities, gives an inventory of hurdles preventing fishermen to shift based on case studies, and proposes policy measures to overcome these hurdles and promote low impact fisheries.
World
Climate Change,Fisheries
4
No
37
Michel, David and Amit Pandya. 2010. Coastal zones and climate change. Stimson Centre. Washington. 121p.
books
http://www.stimson.org/images/uploads/research.../Coastal_Zones-Complete.pdf
Climate change and fisheries N/a
Coastal Zones and Climate Change examines the environmental stresses on coastal areas of the Indian Ocean and the resulting dilemmas confronting coastal managers and policy-makers in a warming world. It presents analyses by experts in the region and at Stimson. The work for the volume had its inception in a workshop cohosted by Stimson and the Regional Centre for Strategic Studies (RCSS) in Colombo, Sri Lanka, March 19–20, 2009. The papers by the experts from the region furnish close studies of crucial issues and actors. They examine climate impacts on coastal ecosystems, explore adaptation strategies, and illuminate the policy pitfalls and possibilities facing particular countries around the Indian Ocean rim. In the book’s concluding paper, David Michel ranges across these analyses and draws out a number of key themes. The workshop gathered experts from academia, think tanks, government, and NGOs to consider emerging climate risks and potential policy responses.
Asia
Climate Change,Coastal Areas
4
No
38
IUCN and World Bank. 2010. Capturing and conserving natural coastal carbon: building mitigation, advancing adaptation. 8p.
Documents and Reports
Climate change and fisheries N/a
Carbon stores in seagrass beds and coastal wetlands—including coastal peats, tidal freshwater wetlands, salt marshes and mangroves—are vast, unaccounted natural carbon sinks. The continued degradation of these coastal ecosystems through disturbance, drainage, reclamation and conversion to other land uses has resulted in substantial emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and loss of natural carbon sequestration. Conserving and rebuilding these critical ecosystems not only mitigates GHG emissions, but delivers important co-benefits including ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change. A drive to protect and rebuild coastal wetlands and seagrass beds calls for closer integration of these fragile land-ocean interfaces into national climate change actions and their inclusion into the activities of the international climate change dialogue.
World
Climate Change,Adaptation
4
No
39
Katikiro, R. ; Schwerdtner Máñez, K. ; Flitner, M. ; Badjeck, M.C. 2010. Fisheries production systems, climate change and climate variability in West Africa: an annotated bibliography. The Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology, Bremen, Germany ; The WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia. 62 p.
Documents and Reports
http://www.worldfishcenter.org/resource_centre/WF_2793.pdf
Climate change and fisheries N/a
This bibliography is intended for people who are involved in fisheries, aquaculture, climate change, disaster management and policy development in West Africa or interested in one or more of these issues. The literature in this bibliography includes peer-reviewed journals, books and book chapters, grey reports and institutional technical papers, but is restricted to literature in English. They were gathered through an extensive web search using fisheries, fish, coastal, inland, aquaculture and/or in combination with climate change and impacts, climate variability, specific country names, West Africa and Gulf of Guinea as the main keywords.
Africa
Climate Change,Fisheries
4
No
40
Hall, S.J. 2011. Climate change and other external drivers in small-scale fisheries: practical steps for responding. p. 132-159. In: Pomeroy, R.S. ; Andrew, N.L. (eds.) Small-scale fisheries management: frameworks and approaches for the developing world. Cabi, UK. 247 p.
books
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries N/a
The effects of international trade, market globalization, technology, climatic change, health and disease, demography, governance, development patterns and aquaculture on small-scale fisheries and practical suggestions for researchers, managers and policy makers on how to develop responses to these challenges are presented.
World
Climate Change,Small Scale Fisheries,Adaptation
4
No
41
Katikiro, R., Schwerdtner Máñez, K., Flitner, M. and Badjeck, M.-C. 2010. Fisheries Production Systems, Climate Change and Climate Variability in West Africa: An Annotated Bibliography. WorldFish Centre
Documents and Reports
http://www.worldfishcenter.org/resource_centre/WF_2793.pdf
Climate change and fisheries N/a
This bibliography is intended for people who are involved in fisheries, aquaculture, climate change, disaster management and policy development in West Africa or interested in one or more of these issues.It includes literature from the late 1960s to 2010 on the fisheries and aquaculture sector in West Africa, and on climate change and climate variability impacts. It was compiled with the aim to understand the major drivers of change in fisheries production systems, especially in relation to climate
change. There are few studies in the West African region (and Africa in general) specifically focusing and analyzing the impacts of climate change on fisheries sector at country, sub-regional or regional levels, necessitating the need for researchers in this region to acquire information from studies carried out in temperate and developed areas.
Africa
Climate Change,Fisheries
4
No
42
Hall, S.J. Climate change and other external drivers in small-scale fisheries: practical steps for responding. 2011. ISBN 978-1-84593-607-5.
Documents and Reports
Climate change and fisheries N/a
The effects of international trade, market globalization, technology, climatic change, health and disease, demography, governance, development patterns and aquaculture on small-scale fisheries and practical suggestions for researchers, managers and policy makers on how to develop responses to these challenges are presented.
World
Climate Change,Small Scale Fisheries
4
No
43
Mannini, P.; Beveridge, M.; Curtis, L. Adapting to climate change: the ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture in the Near East and North Africa region. 2010.FAO Aquaculture Newsletter No. 45 : 14-15.
newsletters
http://www.worldfishcenter.org/resource_centre/WF_2714.pdf
Climate change and adaptation N/a
The FAO/WorldFish Center Workshop on Adapting to Climate Change: the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Near East and North Africa took place in November, 2009 to identify and address the impacts created by climate change in the region, and how the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF) and Aquaculture (EAA) can be utilized for the management and adaptation of fisheries and aquaculture in the face of these impacts. The workshop was structured through working group sessions divided into three main topic areas, namely: a) identifying climate change impacts on fisheries and aquaculture; b) identifying adaptation/ management strategies for priority impacts/issues; and c) understanding regional and sub-regional capacities for the implementation of adaptation strategies.
Africa
Small Scale Fisheries,Climate Change,Adaptation
4
No
44
Badjeck, M.C.; Diop, N. The future is now: how scenarios can help Senegalese and Mauritanian fisheries adapt to climate change. 2010. Nature & Faune 25(1): 62-68.
newsletters
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries N/a
Localized changes in the productivity of marine and inland waters induced by climate change will pose new challenges to the fishery and the aquaculture sectors in West Africa. However, climate change does not occur in isolation of other drivers of change: processes of environmental, economic and social change can affect the fishery sector, potentially creating additional vulnerability to climate change. Scenarios are a useful tool to explore uncertainties and understand non-climatic drivers of change. Despite their prevalence in global environmental change research, few have focused on the fisheries sector. This article presents the construction of fisheries sector scenarios for Senegal and Mauritania required for the analysis of climate change adaptation policies.
Africa
Adaptation,Artisanal Fisheries,Climate Change
4
No
45
Allison, E.H., W.Neil Adger; Marie-Caroline Badjeck; Katrina Brown; Declan Conway; Nick K Dulvy; Ashley Halls; Allison Perry and John. D. Reynold. 2005. Effects of climate change on the sustainability of capture and enhancement of fisheries important to the poor: analysis of the vulnerability and adaptability of fisherfolk living in poverty. Project No. R4778J. Final Technical Report.
http://www.researchintouse.com/nrk/RIUinfo/outputs/R4778J-FTRa.pdf
Climate change and adaptation N/a
The aim of this case study analysis was to analyse the link between the per capita fish consumption of fisherfolk and the potential supply and demand of reef resources at national scales, taking projected population growth and projected climate change into account. The analysis in this report provides a basis for targeting future interventions to support
adaptation to future climate change among poor fisherfolk and in fishing-dependent regions but there remain several key knowledge-gaps that constrain our ability to advise on appropriate means to implement such interventions. These knowledge gaps are briefly summarised here. They could form the basis for a future research agenda in this field.
World
Adaptation,Climate Change
4
No
46
Allison, Edward.H., Neil L. Andrew and Jamie Oliver. Enhancing the resilience of inland fisheries and aquaculture systems to climate change.
Documents and Reports
http://www.icrisat.org/journal/SpecialProject/sp15.pdf
Climate change and fisheries N/a
Some of the most important inland fisheries in the World are found in semi-arid regions. Production systems and livelihoods in arid and semi-arid areas are at risk from future climate variability and change; their fisheries are no exception. This paper reviews the importance of fisheries to livelihoods in ‘wetlands in drylands’, with a
focus on case-studies in Africa. We examine the threats posed by climate change to the traditional ‘tri-economy’ of fishing, farming and livestock herding. Although both livelihood strategies and local institutions are highly adapted to cope with, and benefit from, climate-induced variability, weaknesses in the wider governance and macro-economic environment mean that the overall adaptive capacity of these regions is low
and the farmer-herder-fishers are vulnerable to projected climate change. In order to maintain the important nutritional, economic, cultural and social benefits of fisheries in the face of climate change, planned adaptation at scales from the local to the regional (trans-national) is required. We use the concept of resilience in linked social-ecological systems to examine how such responses may be developed and promoted. Key strategies
include facilitating people’s geographical andoccupational mobility, improving intersectoral water and land-use planning, and promoting forms of aquaculture that help build resilience of farming systems to seasonal and episodic water deficits.
World
Climate Change,Adaptation,Aquaculture
4
No
47
Macfadyen, Graeme and Edward Allison. 2009. Climate change, fisheries, trade and competitiveness: Understanding impacts and formulating responses for commonwealth small States
Documents and Reports
http://www.thecommonwealth.org/files/219183/FileName/ClimateChangeFisheriesTradeandCompetitiveness-UnderstandingImpactsandFormulatingResponsesforCommonwealthSmallStates.pdf
Climate change and fisheries N/a
This report focuses specifically on the likely impact of climate change on the trade and competitiveness of the fisheries sector in small developing Commonwealth States and thus
contributes to bringing the fisheries sector into a more central role in policy discussion on climate change. An assessment of the climatic change implications on the trade and competitiveness of the fisheries requires consideration first of the climatic-fisheries impact pathways i.e. physical and chemical changes in oceans, lakes and rivers resulting from climate change, then of how such changes are likely to effect fish and ecosystems, and finally how these changes will impact on the trade and competitiveness of the fisheries sector
particularly fishers/fish farmers, communities and national economies. A better understanding of these impact pathways can be used to inform policy recommendations on enhancing fisheries-specific trade and climate change mitigation measures, and to highlight appropriate adaptation initiatives in the fisheries sector. Both adaptation and mitigation in the fisheries sector are likely to be critical for small developing Commonwealth States in maintaining or increasing trade competitiveness, and in realising the opportunities emanating from globalisation.
World
Climate Change,Trade,Fisheries
4
No
48
Vivekanandan, E. 2011. Climate change and Indian marine fisheries. Marine fisheries policy bried -3. CMFRI Special Publication No. 105. CMFRI. 111p.
Documents and Reports
http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8440/1/CMFRI_SP_105.pdf
Climate change and fisheries N/a
The marine fish production in India has increased by six times in the last six decades. However, there are sustainability concerns such as
production approaching the potential yield, overcapacity in the fishing sector, open access to the fishery, degradation of habitats and trade-related issues. Climate change exacerbates this situation. Sea surface temperature has increased by 0.2 to 0.3 o C along the Indian coast in the last 45 years, and is projected to increase by 2.0 to 3.5 o C by 2099. The projected sea level rise is 30 cm in 50 years. During the southwest monsoon, the wind speed and coastal upwelling has strengthened, resulting in higher concentration of chlorophyll a along the Kerala coast.

The following measures could contribute to coping with climate change: (i) evaluating the adaptive capacity of important fish groups; (ii) identifying adaptive fishing and post-harvest practices to sustain fish production and quality; (iii) supporting energy efficient fishing craft and gear; (iv) cultivating aquatic algae, which have positive response to climate change for food and pharmaceutical purposes and for production of biodiesel; (v) increasing climate literacy among the fishing and farming communities; (vi) establishing Weather Watch Groups; (vii) establishing effective coast protection structures; and (vii) evolving decision support systems for fisheries.
Asia
Fisheries,Climate Change
4
No
49
Vunisea, Aliti. The Challenges of Planning and Managing Pacific coastal fisheries and the impact of climate change. ‐a gender perspective. A power point presentation
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation,Women in Fisheries South Pacific Islands
The presentation talks about gender participation in fisheries, how to make woman be seen and heard and why women should be considered in mitigation, adaptation or coping mechanisms
Oceania
Women,Adaptation,Mitigation,Climate Change,Fisheries
3
No
50
Ferrer, E., S. Dalisay (Eds.).2010. Workshop on Women in Fisheries and Climate Change. Quezon City, Philippines. Organizing Committee for the Workshop on “Women in Fisheries and Climate Change” c/o CERD, 102-E, R.L. Building, Kamuning Road, Quezon City, Philippines.
books
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries,Women in Fisheries Philippines
The National Workshop on Women In Fisheries and Climate was held from March 9-11 in the Philippines. It aimed to (1) determine climate change impacts on the women in coastal/ fishing communities; determine what issues/ challenges have arisen and how women have coped with these new challenges both at the level of household and community organizations, (3) identify key government initiatives/ policies that have been helpful to women in fisheries and to draw lessons from these; (4) identify areas for development work surrounding women in fisheries within the context of climate change; finally (5) define the agenda and strategy for sustaining life and livelihood in fisheries in the future particularly in the light of climate change. At the end of the workshop, the women fishers had felt that they had learned a lot about climate change. They were able to situate and understand better their recent experiences in the light of climate change impacts. With this they felt empowered to face without fear or reservations whatever challenges climate change would bring on them in the future.
Asia
Women,Climate Change,Fisheries,Fishing Communities
4
No
51
Barbraud, Christophe, Virginie Rolland, Stéphanie Jenouvrier, Marie Nevoux, Karine Delord and Henri Weimerskirch. Effects of climate change and fisheries bycatch on Southern Ocean seabirds: a review. Mar Ecol Prog Ser., Vol. 454: 285–307, 2012 doi: 10.3354/meps09616
Documents and Reports
Climate change and fisheries Southern Ocean
Over the last century, major climate changes and intense human exploitation of natural living resources have occurred in the Southern Ocean, potentially affecting its ecosystems up to top marine predators. Fisheries may also directly affect seabirds through bycatch and additional food resources provided by discards. The past 20 yr of research has seen an increasing number of studies investigating the effects of climate change and fisheries activities on Southern Ocean seabirds. Here, we review these studies in order to identify patterns in changes in distribution, phenology, demography and population dynamics in response to changes in climate and fisheries bycatch. Shifts in distribution and breeding phenology were documented in parallel to increases in sea-surface temperatures and changes in sea-ice cover. Above all warm sea-surface temperatures negatively affected demographic parameters, although exceptions were found. Relationships suggest non-linear effects of sea-ice cover on demographic parameters and population dynamics, with optimum sea-ice cover conditions appearing to be the rule. Fishing efforts were mainly negatively related to survival rates, and only for a few species positively related to breeding success. A handful of studies found that chronic mortality of immature birds due to fisheries negatively affected populations. Climate factors and fisheries bycatch may simultaneously affect demographic parameters in a complex way, which can be integrated in population models to project population trajectories under future climate or fisheries scenarios. Needed are studies that integrate other environmental factors, trophic levels, foraging behaviour, climate−fisheries inter - actions, and the mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity, such as some pioneering studies conducted elsewhere.
Southern Ocean
bycatch,Birds,Fisheries,Climate Change
4
No
52
Ford, James D. and Christina Goldhar. Climate change vulnerability and adaptation in resource dependent communities: a case study from West Greenland. Clim Res. Vol. 54: 181–196, 2012. doi: 10.3354/cr01118
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation Greenland
This paper reports on a project conducted over 4 field seasons in the town of Qeqer -tar suaq in West Greenland, identifying and examining vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. Drawing upon semi-structured interviews with community members (n = 132), key informant interviews with policy makers (n = 10), and analysis of secondary sources, we documented changes in sea ice regimes, temperatures, and wind. Vulnerabilities to these changes are primarily associated with hunting and fishing. Constrained access and availability of key wildlife resources and increased harvesting dangers are affecting individuals and households closely linked to the subsistence economy. Adaptations that are being employed combine both reactive and anticipatory interventions autonomously undertaken at an individual and household level, including traveling to new fishing grounds, seeking alternative sources of income when harvesting activities are not possible, preparing for the unexpected, and an increased reliance on boat transport. The role of women in supporting male hunters/fishers, knowledge of environmental conditions, the existence of alternative sources of income, diversity and flexibility in harvesting, and willingness to alter livelihoods, are important factors that underpin adaptive capacity. Institutional constraints, however, are a major impediment to adaptation and have reduced the flexibility which has enabled historic adaptation to changing conditions. While alternative income sources are increasingly important in light of recent stresses, occupational hunters face restrictions on money-earning from non-harvesting activities, and various harvesting quotas fail to reflect recent alterations in species availability with changing climatic conditions. More broadly, hunting regulations have contributed to the erosion of the moral economy of harvesting and have weakened social networks, increasing vulnerability to projected future changes in climate.
Europe
Adaptive management,Climate Change,Livelihood,Indigenous Communities,Vulnerability
4
No
53
Hutchings, Jeffrey A. , Isabelle M. Côté, Julian J. Dodson, Ian A. Fleming, S. Jennings, Nathan J. Mantua, Randall M. Peterman, Brian E. Riddell, and Andrew J. Weaver. Climate change, fisheries, and aquaculture: trends and consequences for Canadian marine biodiversity. Environ. Rev. 20: 220–311 (2012). doi:10.1139/a2012-011
Documents and Reports
Climate change and fisheries Canada
Climate change, fishing, and aquaculture have affected and will continue to influence Canadian marine biodiversity, albeit at different spatial scales. The Arctic is notably affected by reduced quality and quantity of sea ice caused by global warming, and by concomitant and forecasted changes in ocean productivity, species ecology, and human
activity. The Atlantic has been especially impacted by severe overfishing and human-induced alterations to food webs. Climate change, fishing, and aquaculture have all affected, to varying degrees, biodiversity on Canada’s Pacific coast. Past and projected trends in key biodiversity stressors reveal marked change. Oceanographic trends include increasing surface water temperatures, reduced salinity, increased acidity, and, in some areas, reduced oxygen. Reductions in Canada’s fishery catches (those in 2009 were half those of the late 1980s), followed by reductions in fishing pressure, are associated with
dramatic changes in the species composition of commercial catches in the Atlantic (formerly groundfish, now predominantly invertebrates and pelagic fish) and the Pacific (formerly salmon, now predominantly groundfish). Aquaculture, dominated by the farming of Atlantic salmon, grew rapidly from the early 1980s until 2002 and has since
stabilized. Climate change is forecast to affect marine biodiversity by shifting species distributions, changing species community composition, decoupling the timing of species’ resource requirements and resource availability, and reducing habitat quality. Harvest-related reductions in fish abundance, many by 80% or more, coupled with fishing-induced changes to food webs, are impairing the capacity of species to recover or even persist. Open-sea aquaculture net pens affect biodiversity by (i) habitat alteration resulting from organic wastes, chemical inputs, and use of nonnative species;
(ii) exchange of pathogens between farmed and wild species; and (iii) interbreeding between wild fish and farmed escapees. Physical and biological changes in the oceans, along with direct anthropogenic impacts, are modifying Canadian marine biodiversity with implications for food security and the social and economic well-being of coastal communities. To assess the consequences of changes in biodiversity for Canada’s oceans and society, it is necessary to understand the current state of marine biodiversity and how it might be affected by projected changes in climate and human uses.
N. America
Overfishing,Climate Change,Fisheries,Aquaculture,Farms
4
No
54
Moerlein, Katie J. and Courtney Carothers. Total Environment of Change: Impacts of Climate Change and Social Transitions on Subsistence Fisheries in Northwest Alaska. Ecology and Society 17(1): 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-04543-170110
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries United States
Arctic ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes as a result of global climate change, with significant implications for the livelihoods of Arctic peoples. In this paper, based on ethnographic research conducted with the Iñupiaq communities of Noatak and Selawik in northwestern Alaska, we detail prominent environmental changes observed over the past twenty to thirty years and their impacts on subsistence-based lifestyles. However, we suggest that it is ultimately insufficient to try to understand how Arctic communities are experiencing and responding to climate change in isolation from other stressors. During interviews and participant observation documenting local observations of climatic and related environmental shifts and impacts to subsistence fishing practices, we find the inseparability of environmental, social, economic, cultural, and political realms for community residents. Many of our informants, who live in a mixed economy based on various forms of income and widespread subsistence harvesting of fish and game, perceive and experience climate change as embedded among numerous other factors affecting subsistence patterns and practices. Changing lifestyles, decreasing interest by younger generations in pursuing subsistence livelihoods, and economic challenges are greatly affecting contemporary subsistence patterns and practices in rural Alaska. Observations of climate change are perceived, experienced, and articulated to researchers through a broader lens of these linked lifestyle and cultural shifts. Therefore, we argue that to properly assess and understand the impacts of climate change on the subsistence practices in Arctic communities, we must also consider the total environment of change that is dramatically shaping the relationship between people, communities, and their surrounding environments.
Arctic
Indigenous Communities,Subsistence Fisheries,Climate Change,Traditional ecological knowladge
4
No
55
Howell, Evan A., Colette C. C. Wabnitz, John P. Dunne and Jeffrey J. Polovina. Climate-induced primary productivity change and fishing impacts on the Central North Pacific ecosystem and Hawaii-based pelagic longline fishery. Climatic Change. (2012) DOI 10.1007/s10584-012-0597-z
Documents and Reports
Climate change and fisheries United States
An existing Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) model for the Central North Pacific was updated and modified to focus on the area used by the Hawaii-based pelagic longline fishery.
The EwE model was combined with output from a coupled NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory climate and biogeochemical model to investigate the likely ecosystem impacts of fishing and climate-induced primary productivity changes. Four simulations were conducted based on 2 fishing effort and climate scenarios from 2010 to 2100. Modeled small and large phytoplankton biomass decreased by 10 % and 20 % respectively, resulting in a 10 % decline in the total biomass of all higher trophic level groups combined. Climate impacts also affected the Hawaii longline fishery, with a 25–29 % reduction in modelled target species yield. Climate impacts on the ecosystem and the fishery were partially mitigated by a drop in fishing effort. Scenarios with a 50 % reduction in fishing effort partially restored longline target species yield to current levels, and decreased longline nontarget species yield. These model results suggest that a further reduction in fishery landings mortality over time than the 2010 level may be necessary to mitigate climate impacts and help sustain yields of commercially preferred fish species targeted by the Hawaii longline fishery through the 21st century.
N. America
Hawaii,longline fisheries,Climate Change
4
No
56
Haynie, Alan C. and Lisa Pfeiffer. Why economics matters for understanding the effects of climate change on fisheries. ICES Journal of Marine Science (2012); doi:10.1093/icesjms/fss021
Documents and Reports
Climate change and fisheries World
Research attempting to predict the effect of climate change on fisheries often neglects to consider how harvesters respond to changing economic, institutional, and environmental conditions, which leads to the overly simplistic prediction of “fisheries follow fish”. However, climate effects on fisheries can be complex because they arise through physical, biological, and economic mechanisms that interact or may not be well understood. Although most researchers find it obvious to include physical and biological factors in predicting the effects of climate change on fisheries, the behaviour of fish harvesters also matters for these predictions. A general but succinct conceptual framework for investigating the effects of climate change on fisheries that incorporates the biological and economic factors that determine how fisheries operate is presented. The use of this framework will result in more complete, reliable, and relevant investigations of the effects of climate change on fisheries. The uncertainty surrounding long-term projections, however, is inherent in the complexity of the system.
General
Markets,Fisheries Management,Economy,Climate Change
4
No
57
Bell, Johann D., Chris Reid, Michael J Batty, Edward H Allison, Patrick Lehodey, Len Rodwell, Timothy D Pickering, Robert Gillett, Johanna E Johnson, Alistair J Hobday and Andreas Demmke. Implications of climate change for contributions by fisheries and aquaculture to Pacific Island economies and communities. In Bell JD, Johnson JE and Hobday AJ (eds) (2011) Vulnerability of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture to Climate Change. Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia.
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries South Pacific Islands
Throughout Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) there is broad recognition
that fisheries and aquaculture make vital contributions to economic development,
government revenue, food security and livelihoods. The Pacific Plan6 recognises that development of the region is linked to the effective management of fish, and the habitats that support them. The Future of Pacific Islands Fisheries’ study now provides a roadmap for harnessing the potential economic and social benefits of fisheries and aquaculture in the face of the many drivers influencing the sector. In this chapter, the authors begin by summarising the recent contributions of oceanic, coastal and freshwater fisheries, and aquaculture, to the region. They then explain the plans PICTs have to optimise these benefits and conclude by assessing the vulnerability of these plans to the main projected changes in production of fisheries resources and aquaculture due to climate change for 2035 and 2100 under a low (B1) and high (A2) emissions scenarios. In assessing the vulnerability of economic development and government revenue, the focus has been mainly on the projected changes to skipjack tuna because this species dominates the catches of industrial fleets. For food security, they have concentrated on the projected changes to coastal fisheries because they currently provide most of the fish eaten by people in Pacific communities. The projected effects of climate change on all fisheries resources and aquaculture have been considered in assessing the vulnerability of livelihoods.
Oceania
Tuna,Climate Change,Vulnerability,Food Security,Aquaculture
4
No
58
Charles, Tony. Climate Change and Fisheries: A Socioeconomic Perspective on Impacts and Adaptation. Presented at the Workshop on “Impact and Adaptation Responses of Fish and Fisheries to Climate Change” Canadian Climate Impact and Adaptation Research Network Ottawa, Canada, 2003.
Documents and Reports
http://husky1.stmarys.ca/~charles/PDFS_2005/024.pdf
Climate change and adaptation World
A presentation that analyses socioeconomic impacts of climate change on the fisheries sector and highlights adaptation through policy.
General
Climate Change,Socio-economic Aspects,Adaptation
3
No
59
Yazdi, Soheila Khoshnevis and Bahram Shakouri, The Effects of Climate Change on Aquaculture. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol.1, No.5, December 2010: 378-382
Documents and Reports
Climate change and fisheries World
Climate change is an additional pressure on top of the many (fishing pressure, loss of habitat, pollution, disturbance, introduced species) which fish stocks already experience. The impact of climate change must be evaluated in the context of other anthropogenic pressures, which often have much greater and more immediate effect. Factors that can
shape climate are climate changes. These include such processes as variations in solar radiation, deviations in the Earth's orbit, mountain-building and continental drift, and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. Some parts of the climate system, such as the oceans and ice caps, respond slowly in reaction to climate changes because of their large mass. Therefore, the climate system can take centuries or longer to fully respond to new external changes. Many of the studies made assumptions about changes in baseline socioeconomic conditions, adaptation, and biophysical processes. Almost all of the studies we examined estimated that there will be increasing adverse impacts beyond an approximate 3 to 4°C increase in global mean temperature. The studies do not show a consistent relationship between impacts and global mean temperatures
between 0 and 3 to 4°C. In coastal resources it is clear that impacts will be adverse with low levels of temperature change.
General
Climate Change,Aquaculture
3
No
60
Roessig, Julie M., Christa M. Woodley, Joseph J. Cech, Jr. and Lara J. Hansen, Effects of global climate change on marine and estuarine fishes and fisheries. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries (2004) 14: 251–275
Documents and Reports
Climate change and fisheries World
Global climate change is impacting and will continue to impact marine and estuarine fish and fisheries. Data trends show global climate change effects ranging from increased oxygen consumption rates in fishes, to changes in foraging and migrational patterns in polar seas, to fish community changes in bleached tropical coral reefs. Projections of future conditions portend further impacts on the distribution and abundance of fishes associated with relatively small temperature changes. Changing fish distributions and abundances will undoubtedly affect communities of humans who harvest these stocks. Coastal-based harvesters (subsistence, commercial, recreational) may be impacted (negatively or positively) by changes in fish stocks due to climate change. Furthermore, marine protected area boundaries, low-lying island countries dependent on coastal economies, and disease incidence (in aquatic organisms and humans) are also affected by a relatively small increase in temperature and sea level. Our interpretations of evidence include many uncertainties about the future of affected fish species and their harvesters. Therefore, there is a need to research the physiology and ecology of marine and estuarine fishes, particularly in the tropics where comparatively little research has been conducted. As a broader and deeper information base accumulates, researchers will be able to make more accurate predictions and forge relevant solutions.
General
Climate Change,Fisheries,Aquaculture,Fish Stock
3
No
61
Kellerman, Adi. The Science of Climate Change and Fisheries. Excerpts from the ICES/PICES/IOC Symposium, 25-29 April 2010, Sendai, Japan
Documents and Reports
http://www.oecd.org/tad/fisheries/45681164.pdf
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries Indonesia
This presentation is about the climate change impacts on fisheries and includes information from various presentations made at the symposium dealing with both food webs with respect to fisheries as well as socio economic impacts on communities.
Asia,Oceania
Climate Change,Fisheries,Adaptation,Socio-economic Aspects
3
No
62
FAO, Strategies for fisheries, aquaculture and climate change: Framework and aims 2011-16
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/docrep/017/am434e/am434e.pdf
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries World
At the regional and subregional levels, FAO’s commitment to decentralized action and to cross-agency linkages also leads to important directions for development responses to climate change. This presents the Fisheries and Aquaculture Department with challenges in linking global programmes and strategies with national actions and outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this document is to provide the medium-term
(2011–16) framework defining the perspectives and objectives of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Department with respect to climate change issues and development responses, and its coherence and operational effectiveness with respect to more localized delivery through regional and subregional offices.
General
Adaptive management,Climate Change,Policy
4
No
63
SPC, 2012. Coastal Fisheries and Climate Change. Policy Brief 16/2012. Secretariat of the Pacific Community
Documents and Reports
http://www.spc.int/DigitalLibrary/Doc/FAME/Brochures/Anon_12_PolicyBrief16_ClimateCoastal.pdf
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries South Pacific Islands
The aim of this policy brief is to: alert Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) to the projected effects of climate change on the contributions that coastal fisheries make to food security and livelihoods; and identify the adaptations and policies needed to reduce the threats and capitalise on the opportunities. Projected declines in coastal fisheries production due to the effects of climate change are expected to reduce the availability of food and livelihood opportunities for coastal communities. Several practical adaptations can minimise these effects and provide access to alternative supplies of fish for food security and jobs.
Oceania
Climate Change,Adaptation,Fisheries,Livelihood
4
No
64
SPC, 2012. Freshwater Fisheries and Climate Change. Policy Brief 16/2012. Secretariat of the Pacific Community
Documents and Reports
http://www.spc.int/DigitalLibrary/Doc/FAME/Brochures/Anon_12_PolicyBrief17_ClimateFreshwater.pdf
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries South Pacific Islands
The aim of this policy brief is to: alert Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) to the projected effects of climate change on the contributions that freshwater (and estuarine) fisheries make to food security; and identify the adaptations and policies needed to reduce the threats and capitalise on the opportunities. Projected increases in air temperatures and rainfall in the tropics are expected to improve the quality and area of habitats for freshwater fish. With good management of catchments, these changes have potential to increase the availability of animal protein in the diets of rural communities living near rivers and lakes. Projected decreases in rainfall in the subtropics are likely to reduce freshwater fish production.
Oceania
Adaptation,Fisheries,Climate Change,Inland Fisheries,Policy
4
No
65
Brander, K. Impacts of Climate Change on Fisheries. Journal of Marine Systems 79 (2010) 389–402.
Documents and Reports
Climate change and fisheries World
Evidence of the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on marine ecosystems is accumulating, but must be evaluated in the context of the “normal” climate cycles and variability which have caused fluctuations in fisheries throughout human history. The impacts on fisheries are due to a variety of direct and indirect effects of a number of physical and chemical factors, which include temperature, winds, vertical mixing, salinity, oxygen, pH and others. The direct effects act on the physiology, development rates, reproduction, behaviour and survival of individuals and can in some cases be studied experimentally and in controlled conditions. Indirect effects act via ecosystem processes and changes in the production of food or abundance of competitors, predators and pathogens. Recent studies of the effects of climate on primary production are reviewed and the consequences for fisheries production are evaluated through regional examples. Regional examples are also used to show changes in distribution and phenology of plankton and fish, which are attributed to climate. The role of discontinuous and extreme events (regime shifts, exceptional warm periods) is discussed. Changes in fish population processes can be investigated in experiments and by analysis of field data, particularly by assembling comparative data from regional examples. Although our existing knowledge is in many respects incomplete it nevertheless provides an adequate basis for improved management of fisheries and of marine ecosystems and for adapting to climate change. In order to adapt to changing climate, future monitoring and research must be closely linked to responsive, flexible and reflexive management systems.
General
Climate Change,Fisheries,Marine Ecosystems
3
No
66
Dulvy, Nicholas K., John D. Reynolds, Graham M. Pilling, John K. Pinnegar, Joe Scutt Phillips, Edward H. Allison and Marie-Caroline Badjeck. Fisheries management and governance challenges in a climate change. Chapter 1 in The Economics of Adapting Fisheries to Climate Change © OECD 2010.
Documents and Reports
http://www.dulvy.com/publications/forthcoming/Dulvy_2011_OECD.pdf
Climate change and fisheries World
Most (84%) of the warming due anthropogenic climate change has been transferred to the oceans. This chapter outlines the causes and consequences of climate change and
summarise future projections for ocean temperature rise, coral bleaching events and ocean acidification, and the associated uncertainties. This review largely focuses on marine ecosystems, as three quarters of capture fisheries landings come from the seas. However, it also presents key issues and examples from freshwater fisheries, as these
fisheries provide important livelihoods and fish protein for some of the world’s poorest people. While the physical and biological effects of climate change are increasingly well understood, particularly for well-studied temperate shelf ecosystems, relatively little is known of the likely impacts for ecosystems elsewhere and their associated fisheries. Overall, on balance, climate change appears to have impacts on fish ecology and
fisheries, but the strength and direction (positive or negative) of the effects vary from place to place. The social and economic effects are less clear; however it is likely that the
economies of countries with the lowest levels of adaptive capacity will be most vulnerable to the effects of climate change on capture fisheries and less able to anticipate and capitalise on any advantages of climate impacts. Despite the uncertainty surrounding the direction and degree of the impact of climate change on marine and freshwater ecosystems, and the associated fisheries and fishing communities, the options for policy makers are relatively clear. Policy makers can respond by pursuing mitigation strategies (reducing CO2 emissions), building socio-ecological resilience and capacity to enable fishing communities to cope with and adapt to the opportunities, challenges and potential dangers presented by climate change, and by integrating the management of natural resource sectors in a portfolio approach.
World
Climate Change,Fisheries,Policy
4
No
67
De Young, C.; Sheridan, S.; Davies, S.; Hjort, A. Climate Change implications for fishing communities in the Lake Chad Basin. FAO/Lake Chad Basin Commission Workshop, 18–20 November 2011, N’djamena, Chad. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Proceedings. No. 25. Rome, FAO. 2012. 84 pp.
Documents and Reports
www.fao.org/icatalog/inter-e.htm
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries Chad
These Proceedings include (1) the report of and (2) the background paper prepared for
the Workshop on climate change implications for fishing communities in the Lake Chad
Basin: What have we learned and what can we do better? The Workshop was hosted by
the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) from 18 to 20 November 2011, attended by
the Lake Chad Basin countries of Cameroon, Central African Republic (CAR), Chad,
Niger and Nigeria, and financed through a Japanese-funded, and Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO)-implemented, project component on
Fisheries management and marine conservation within a changing ecosystem context
(GCP/INT/253/JPN), in collaboration with LCBC. Presentation topics included: the
hydrology of the Lake Chad region, national contexts of climate change and fisheries,
identification and reduction of climate change vulnerability in the fisheries of the Lake
Chad Basin and an overview of current projects on Lake Chad. Discussions largely
focused on: hydrology and climate trends of the Lake Chad basin, national perspectives
on impacts and adaptations of climate change, current natural resources projects in the Lake Chad Basin and recommendations for actions to increase adaptability and resilience to be carried out. The Workshop recommended that there is more coordinated action and information sharing regarding natural resources, and increased cooperation between LCBC member State governments to support and strengthen existing political commitments in the Lake Chad Basin for effective aquatic resource use management to ensure sustainable development of land and aquatic based activities in the basin.
Africa
Adaptation,Climate Change,Vulnerability,Lake Fisheries
4
No
68
De Young, C. Doris Soto, Tarub Bahri and David Brown. Building resilience for adaptation to climate change in the fisheries and aquaculture sector. FAO-OECD Workshop. Building Resilience for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Fisheries and Aquaculture Sector, 23-24 APRIL 2012.
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/docrep/017/i3084e/i3084e08.pdf
Climate change and adaptation World
Climate change is adding to the sense of urgency within fisheries and aquaculture for the need to improve the resilience of human and aquatic systems. The Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries and Aquaculture provide many principles, strategies and tools that can be implemented today to lessen these socialecological systems’ exposure and sensitivity to climatic change as well as increasing their adaptive capacities. Application of the EAF/EAA will help to ensure that effective stakeholder involvement in both monitoring changes and adaptation planning becomes the default approach to ensuring resilience of the socio-ecological systems and to minimize unintended consequences of adaptation and mitigation actions. Integrated adaptation planning and implementation within a systems approach will not only allow for the specificity needed within each sector but also for addressing issues shared across sectors within a broader system. Efforts are needed to improve and downscale our understanding of current vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies of the sector to prepare the sector for its own climate change planning and also to enable the sector to participate in national climate change planning, including providing feedback on the impacts of adaptation and mitigation actions from other sectors. Technological innovation, public and private insurance schemes and disaster risk management will also provide necessary adaptation options but putting into place robust and effective management now will be the key to ensuring and enhancing the benefits derived from fisheries and aquaculture.
General
Fisheries,Climate Change,Adaptation
5
No
69
Murawski, Steven A. Summing up Sendai: progress integrating climate change science and fisheries. ICES Journal of Marine Science (2011), 68(6), 1368–1372. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsr086
Documents and Reports
http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/68/6/1368.full.pdf+html
Climate change and fisheries World
This is a summary of the Sendai Conference looking at integrating climate change science such as modelling of climate related effects on fisheries, exploring the essential linkages and integration necessary to bring the two disciplines together. This paper concludes that there is need to organize global information into a coherent informatic system, to periodically network among the elements of our science community to forge new linkages, to describe progress, and to create opportunities for new and imaginative studies.
World
Climate Change,Fisheries
3
No
70
Nellemann, C., Hain, S., and Alder, J. (Eds). February 2008. In Dead Water – Merging of climate change with pollution, over-harvest, and infestations in the world’s fishing grounds. United Nations Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal, Norway, www.grida.no
Documents and Reports
Climate change and fisheries World
In this report, the locations of the most productive fishing grounds in the World – from shallow, coastal waters to the deep and high seas – are compared to projected scenarios of climate change, ocean acidification, coral bleaching, intensity of fisheries, land-based pollution, increase of invasive species infestations and growth in coastal development
World
Fisheries,Fishing Grounds,Climate Change
4
No
71
Mohanty, Bimal P, Sasmita Mohanty, Jyanendra K Sahoo and Anil P Sharma. Climate change: impacts on fisheries and aquaculture. Chapter 7 in Climate Change and Variability (Ed. Suzanne Simard), 2010. DOI: 10.5772/9805
Documents and Reports
http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/11440/InTech-Climate_change_impacts_on_fisheries_and_aquaculture.pdf
Climate change and fisheries World
Climate change has been recognized as the foremost environmental problem of the twentyfirst century and has been a subject of considerable debate and controversy. It is predicted to lead to adverse, irreversible impacts on the earth and the ecosystem as a whole. Although it is difficult to connect specific weather events to climate change, increases in global temperature has been predicted to cause broader changes, including glacial retreat, arctic shrinkage and worldwide sea level rise. Climate change has been implicated in mass mortalities of several aquatic species including plants, fish, corals and mammals. The present chapter has been divided in to two parts; the first part discusses the causes and general concerns of global climate change and the second part deals, specifically, on the impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture, possible mitigation options and development of suitable monitoring tools
General
Adaptation,Aquaculture,Fisheries,Climate Change,Monitoring,Mitigation
4
No
72
PaCFA. Strategic Framework for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Climate Change. A proposal by the Global Partnership Climate Change, Fisheries and Aquaculture (PaCFA), 2011.
Documents and Reports
www.climatefish.org
Climate change and fisheries World
This document has been prepared by the Global Partnership Climate Change, fisheries and Aquaculture (PaCFA) to support the process of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in response to the need for concerted action on fisheries, aquaculture and climate change. It lays the groundwork for a coordinated response from the fisheries and aquaculture sector to climate change, notably through a strategic approach to maintain or enhance the health and resilience of global oceans and waters, and strengthening the capacity of dependent people and communities, integrating these closely into broader development strategies
General
Action plan,Climate Change,Aquaculture,Fisheries,UNFCCC
4
No
73
UNEP, Fisheries and Aquaculture in our Changing Climate. Policy Brief for UNFCCC COP 15, 2009.
Documents and Reports
http://www.unep.org/ecosystemmanagement/Portals/7/Documents/policy_brief_EM-MCE-CC-Fisheries.pdf
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries World
This policy brief highlights the key issues to ensure that decision makers and climate change negotiators are aware of and understand the changes and their impacts, and the opportunities for adaptation and mitigation in aquatic ecosystems, fisheries and aquaculture at the UNFCCC COP-15 in Copenhagen in December 2009 and in national and local responses to climate change. The brief also reflects the consensus of 19 concerned international and regional agencies.
General
Adaptation,Fisheries,Aquaculture,Climate Change
3
No
74
Bell, Johann, Mike Batty, Alex Ganachaud, Peter Gehrke, Alistair Hobday, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Johanna Johnson, Robert Le Borgne, Patrick Lehodey, Janice Lough, Tim Pickering, Morgan Pratchett, Marcus Sheaves and Michelle Waycott. Preliminary Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Pacific. In ‘The Contribution of Fisheries to the Economies of Pacific Island Countries and Territories’. Pacific Studies Series (Asian Development Bank)’. 2009
Documents and Reports
http://www.spc.int/sppu/images/stories/preliminary%20assessment.pdf
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries South Pacific Islands
This brief report outlines how the climate of the Pacific is projected to change, how climate change has affected fisheries elsewhere in the world, and how it is expected to affect fisheries and aquaculture in the Pacific. The emphasis is on the implications for economies of Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). It concludes with general recommendations that should help the regional and national management agencies and other stakeholders in fisheries to adapt to maintain the benefits of fisheries.
Oceania
Adaptation,Climate Change,Fisheries
3
No
75
ICOR, Vulnerabilities of fishing communities to ecological and climate changes. A Pilot Study in Dharavi Bet, Mumbai by Institute for Community Organization Research. Indian Network on Ethics and Climate Change. July 2011
Documents and Reports
http://www.ced.org.in/docs/inecc/member_reports/Vulnerabilities_coastal_study.pdf
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries India
This is a study of the impact of local ecological changes, global warming and coastal flooding on fishing communities in the Mumbai suburbs of Manori, Gorai and Uttan (administratively, Uttan is in the neighbouring Thane district). The objective was to find how ecological and climate changes have affected, or are likely to affect, fishing communities and their livelihood, and their perceptions of the reasons for the changes, if any. The focus was on the vulnerabilities of artisanal and small-scale fishers.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Vulnerability,Climate Change
4
No
76
Zander, K.K., L. Petheram and S.T. Garnett. Stay or leave? Potential climate change adaptation strategies among Aboriginal people in coastal communities in northern Australia. Natural Hazards, February 2013. 10.1007/s11069-013-0591-4
Documents and Reports
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11069-013-0591-4
Climate change and adaptation Australia
Coastal northern Australia is largely owned and occupied by Aboriginal people who are strongly connected to their traditional country. We assess the views of Aboriginal people in Arnhem Land on the impacts of climate change and their possible precautionary responses to both sea level rise and a potential increase in the intensity of tropical cyclones in coastal communities. All respondents had heard about climate change, and 48 % had already seen environmental changes, particularly sea level rise, which they attributed to climate change. Fifty-eight percent of respondents would consider relocating in the future for safety reasons, although most respondents perceived living close to the sea as highly important for their future well-being, emphasising their strong connection to their traditional sea country. Many of those willing to relocate would consider moving inland, either temporarily or permanently, provided that community facilities could also be moved. Other respondents who said they would be unlikely to relocate in the future because of climate change impacts, and would prefer to adapt in situ with government support (e.g. building more shelters for severe cyclones, building sea walls and better roads for quick evacuation if necessary). We recommend that the diversity of adaptation preferences among Aboriginal people should be accommodated in policy to minimise social impacts of climate change and to take advantage of potential opportunities that could arise from moving.
Australia/Oceania
Aboriginals,Climate Change,Migration
4
No
77
Celliers, L. S. Rosendo, I. Coetzee and G. Daniels. Pathways of integrated coastal management from national policy to local implementation: Enabling climate change adaptation. Marine Policy, 39, May 2013, Pages 72–86 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.10.005
Documents and Reports
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X12002035
Climate change and adaptation Mozambique
Integrated coastal management (ICM) has been developing concomitantly with the realisation of the severity of the potential impacts of climate change. The discourse on climate change and adaptation has also included the awareness that adaptation must take place at all levels of government, particularly local government. Climate change is expected to have significant impacts on the physical, social, environmental and economic environments of coastal cities and towns, and in particular on the poor and vulnerable communities within these cities and towns. The crucial role that local government can play in climate protection and building cities' and communities' resilience to climate change is widely recognised at the global level. This paper explores the legal and policy connexion between ICM, local government and climate change in Mozambique and South Africa, two developing countries in Africa. The state of institutionalisation of coastal management at national through to local government is also examined. The authors contend that the state, character and maturity of the ICM policy domain can create an enabling environment within which local government agencies can prepare for future impacts of climate change. Conversely it can also limit, delay and hinder climate change adaptation. The paper concludes with the identification of some key success factors for assessing the effectiveness of the existing policy and legal frameworks to respond to the challenges of climate change. It also identifies some key principles to be included in future legislative reform to promote ICM, cooperative governance and greater preparedness for climate change at local government level.
Africa
Action plan,Adaptation,Africa,ICAM,Climate Change,Coastal Area Management
4
No
78
McClanahan, T.R., J.E. Cinner, E.J. Ayana, M.J. Hardt, J. Jacquet and J.N. Sanchirico, Trends, current understanding and future research priorities for artisanal coral reef fisheries research.
Documents and Reports
http://41.215.122.106:80/dspace/handle/0/4562
Climate change and fisheries World
Artisanal coral reef fisheries provide food and employment to hundreds of millions of people in developing countries, making their sustainability a high priority. However, many of these fisheries are degraded and not yielding their maximum socioeconomic returns. We present a literature review that evaluates foci and trends in research effort on coral reef fisheries. We describe the types of data and categories of management recommendations presented in the 464 peer-reviewed articles returned. Identified trends include a decline in articles reporting time-series data, fish catch biomass and catch-per-unit effort, and an increase in articles containing bycatch and stakeholder interview data. Management implications were discussed in 80% of articles, with increasing frequency over time, but only 22% of articles made management recommendations based on the research presented in the article, as opposed to more general recommendations. Key future research priorities, which we deem underrepresented in the literature at present, are: (i) effectiveness of management approaches, (ii) ecological thresholds, trade-offs and sustainable levels of extraction, (iii) effects of climate change, (iv) food security, (v) the role of aquaculture, (vi) access to and control of fishery resources, (vii) relationships between economic development and fishery exploitation, (viii) alternative livelihoods and (ix) integration of ecological and socioeconomic research.
General
Coral Reefs,Artisanal Fisheries,Climate Change
3
No
79
Bell, Johann D., Alexandre Ganachaud, Peter C. Gehrke, Shane P. Griffiths, Alistair J. Hobday, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Johanna E. Johnson, Robert Le Borgne, Patrick Lehodey, Janice M. Lough, Richard J. Matear, Timothy D. Pickering, Morgan S. Pratchett, Alex Sen Gupta, Inna Senina and Michelle Waycott. Mixed responses of tropical Pacific fisheries and aquaculture to climate change. Nature Climate Change (2013) doi:10.1038/nclimate1838
Documents and Reports
http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nclimate1838.html
Climate change and fisheries Pacific Island
Pacific Island countries have an extraordinary dependence on fisheries and aquaculture. Maintaining the benefits from the sector is a difficult task, now made more complex by climate change. Here we report how changes to the atmosphere–ocean are likely to affect the food webs, habitats and stocks underpinning fisheries and aquaculture across the region. We found winners and losers—tuna are expected to be more abundant in the east and freshwater aquaculture and fisheries are likely to be more productive. Conversely, coral reef fisheries could decrease by 20% by 2050 and coastal aquaculture may be less efficient. We demonstrate how the economic and social implications can be addressed within the sector—tuna and freshwater aquaculture can help support growing populations as coral reefs, coastal fisheries and mariculture decline
Oceania
Aquaculture,Climate Change,Fisheries,Tuna,Coral Reefs
4
No
80
Nguyena, Thanh Cong, Jackie Robinson, Shinji Kaneko, and Satoru Komatsu. Estimating the value of economic benefits associated with adaptation to climate change in a developing country: A case study of improvements in tropical cyclone warning services. Ecological Economics., Volume 86, February 2013, Pages 117–128
Documents and Reports
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800912004508
Climate change and adaptation Vietnam
Linking tropical cyclone activity with anthropogenic climate change is subject to on-going debate. However, modelling studies consistently have projected that climate change is likely to increase the intensity of cyclones and the related rainfall rates in the future. A precautionary approach to this possibility is to adapt to the adverse effects of the changing climate by improving early warning services for cyclones as a ‘no or low-regrets’ option. Given limited funding resources, assessments of economic efficiency will be necessary, and values for benefits are an essential input. This paper aims to estimate the benefits to households of an improved cyclone warning service in Vietnam. Choice experiment surveys with 1014 respondents were designed and conducted to inform this paper. The benefit estimates of the maximal improvements in a number of attributes of cyclone warning services (i.e. forecasting accuracy, frequency of update, and mobile phone based warnings) are approximately USD7.1–8.1 per household, which would be an upper bound estimate. Results from the marginal willingness to pay for the attributes suggest that investments should be dedicated to improvements in the accuracy of warning information and a warning service based on mobile phone short message
Asia
cyclones,Climate Change
3
No
81
Smith, Timothy F.; Thomsen, Dana C.; Gould, Steve; Schmitt, Klaus; Schlegel, Bianca. 2013. "Cumulative Pressures on Sustainable Livelihoods: Coastal Adaptation in the Mekong Delta." Sustainability 5, no. 1: 228-241
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation Vietnam
Many coastal areas throughout the world are at risk from sea level rise and the increased intensity of extreme events such as storm surge and flooding. Simultaneously, many areas are also experiencing significant socio-economic challenges associated with rural-urban transitions, population growth, and increased consumption resulting from improving gross regional product. Within this context we explore the viability of proposed adaptation pathways in Soc Trang province, Vietnam — an area of the Mekong Delta experiencing cumulative pressures on coastal livelihoods. A participatory workshop and interviews, using a combination of systems thinking and futures techniques, revealed a shared goal of sustainable livelihoods, which provides an integrated and systemic focus for coastal adaptation strategies. Emphasizing sustainable livelihoods is less likely to lead to maladaptation because stakeholders consciously seek to avoid optimizing particular system elements at the expense of others — and thus engage in broader decision-making frameworks supportive of social-ecological resilience. However, the broad ambit required for sustainable livelihoods is not supported by governance frameworks that have focused on protective strategies (e.g., dyke building, strengthening and raising, to continue and expand agriculture and aquaculture production) at the expense of developing a diverse suite of adaptation strategies, which may lead to path dependencies and an ultimate reduction in adaptive capacity for system transformation.
Asia
Mekong Delta,Climate Change,Adaptation,Coastal Areas,Coastal Communities
4
No
82
Harsem, Øistein and Alf Håkon Hoel. Climate change and adaptive capacity in fisheries management: the case of Norway. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, March 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 49-63.
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation Norway
Climate variability and change drive changes in marine ecosystems, such as growth in and geographic distribution of living marine resources. Mitigating measures in response to anthropogenic climate change are insufficient, and more attention must be directed toward adaptation to climate change. In the management of living marine resources, successful management will rest on the capacity of management regimes to be adaptive and flexible. This article addresses the management of living marine resources, and how management regimes cope with change and bolster the resilience of ecosystems. Experiences from the Norwegian management regime for living marine resources are used to illustrate how an existing regime can respond to change. We conclude that management regimes with sufficient capacity, in terms of robust science, regulatory frameworks that contribute to reduced fishing effort and maintenance of sustainable stock levels, and enforcement capability, are more likely to respond adequately to the challenges posed by climate change than those that do not.
Europe
Fisheries Management,Fisheries,Fish Stock,Climate Change,Adaptive management
4
No
83
Ahmed, N. Linking prawn and shrimp farming towards a green economy in Bangladesh: Confronting climate change. Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 75, April 2013, Pages 33–42.
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation Bangladesh
The coastal aquaculture sector in Bangladesh is dominated by export-oriented freshwater prawn and brackishwater shrimp farming, both are commercially known as “white gold” because of transnational value. This article reviews prawn and shrimp farming in coastal Bangladesh that have been linked to a “green economy”. As part of agricultural development in coastal Bangladesh, prawn and shrimp farming were initiated in the 1970s. Over the last three decades, prawn and shrimp culture have undergone a revolutionary development in coastal Bangladesh. Prawn and shrimp farming have brought about widespread social and economic benefits. However, a wide range of environmental issues including climate change have recently been identified to threaten the sustainability of coastal aquaculture. In order to achieve a green economy, environmental challenges must be addressed in translating its benefits effectively to the millions of coastal poor. Considering the extreme vulnerability to the effects of climate change, an integrated green economy system needs to be introduced to cope with the challenges. Effective planning in respect to coastal zone management would also be given particular attention.
Asia
Climate Change,Fisheries,Shrimp,Vulnerability,Poverty
3
No
84
Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril, Bahaman Abu Samah, Jeffrey Lawrence D'Silva, Sulaiman Md. Yassin, (2013) "The process of social adaptation towards climate change among Malaysian fishermen", International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, Vol. 5 Iss: 1, pp.38 – 53
Documents and Reports
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17077755&show=abstract
Climate change and adaptation Malaysia
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the level of social adaptation to climate change among fishermen in the East Coast Region of Peninsular Malaysia. The approach used a set of questionnaires developed based on the individual adaptive capacity framework on social adaptation to climate change developed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Based on multi-stage simple random sampling, a total of 300 registered fishermen in the East Coast Region of Peninsular Malaysia were chosen as the respondents. The fishermen surveyed had a high level of adaptation with regards to two aspects: first, environmental awareness, attitudes and beliefs; and second, local environmental knowledge. In contrast, they showed a low level of adaptation with regards to three aspects: attachment to place; formal and informal networks; and attachment to occupation. In addition, the fishermen had a moderate level of adaptation in relation to ten other aspects. Research limitations/implications – The findings of this study reflect social adaptation towards climate change among registered fishermen in the East Coast Region of Malaysia and results might be different if registered fishermen from other regions are included. Practical implications – The study demonstrated the strengths and weaknesses of the fishermen's adaptations to climate change. Such strengths and weaknesses have resulted in a number of suggestions and recommendations, which may work as tools by which to generate well-planned and systematic adaptation options for dealing with the threatening impacts of climate change. Originality/value – Previous studies, both local and international, have consistently provided comprehensive explanatory reviews regarding climate change impacts on fishermen's activities. However, the common constraint of these studies is that aspects of adaptation are not under their radar; therefore, this study aims to fill this gap.
Asia
Adaptation,Fishermen
3
No
85
Chung, I. K., Oak, J. H., Lee, J. A., Shin, J. A., Kim, J. G., and Park, K.-S. Installing kelp forests/seaweed beds for mitigation and adaptation against global warming: Korean Project Overview. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fss206.
Documents and Reports
http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/01/20/icesjms.fss206.short
Climate change and adaptation Korea, South
Seaweed beds can serve as a significant carbon dioxide (CO2) sink while also satisfying global needs for food, fodder, fuel, and pharmaceutical products. The goal of our Korean Project has been to develop new baseline and monitoring methodologies for mitigation and adaptation within the context of climate change. Using innovative research approaches, we have established the Coastal CO2 Removal Belt (CCRB), which comprises both natural and man-made plant communities in the coastal region of southern Korea. Implemented on various spatial–temporal scales, this scheme promotes the removal of CO2 via marine forests. For example, when populated with the perennial brown alga Ecklonia, a pilot CCRB farm can draw down ∼10 t of CO2 per ha per year. This success is manifested by an increment in biomass accumulations and a decrease in the amount of dissolved inorganic carbon in the water column.
Asia
Seaweed,Adaptation,Climate Change
3
No
86
Parvin, G. A. and Shaw, R. (2013), Microfinance institutions and a coastal community's disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process: a case study of Hatiya, Bangladesh. Disasters, 37: 165–184. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2012.01292.x
Documents and Reports
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-7717.2012.01292.x/abstract
Climate change and adaptation Bangladesh
Several researchers have examined the role of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in poverty alleviation, but the part that they play in disaster risk reduction remains unaddressed. Through an empirical study of Hatiya Island, one of the most vulnerable coastal communities of Bangladesh, this research evaluates perceptions of MFI support for the disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process. The findings reveal no change in relation to risk reduction and income and occupation aspects for more than one-half of the clients of MFIs. In addition, only 26 per cent of them have witnessed less damage as a result of being members of MFIs. One can argue, though, that the longer the membership time period the better the disaster preparedness, response, and recovery process. The outcomes of this study could help to guide the current efforts of MFIs to enhance the ability of coastal communities to prepare for and to recover from disasters efficiently and effectively.
Asia
Microfinance,Adaptation,Disaster management,Coastal Communities
4
No
87
Lin, Brenda B, Yong Bing Khoo, Matthew Inman, Chi-Hsiang Wang, Sorada Tapsuwan, Xiaoming Wang. Assessing inundation damage and timing of adaptation: sea level rise and the complexities of land use in coastal communities. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, March 2013
Documents and Reports
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11027-013-9448-0
Climate change and adaptation Australia
Climate change exacerbates the public policy challenges already present in managing contested landscapes. Coastal managers deal with multiple stressors and multiple stakeholders and have a difficult challenge in managing competing land use as sea level rise (SLR) reduces the amount of prized coastal land. The information needed to inform on the type and timing of adaptation strategies reflects a major gap in the planning and implementation of adaptation options. We present here an inundation risk assessment framework (IRAF) for estimating the impacts of increasing SLR inundation extent probabilities and the cost of inundation damage through time for public and private infrastructure assets. The framework integrates the cost of damage across asset classes in order to help decision-makers judge the economic utility of various adaptation options and the timing of implementation. We provide an example of this methodology using a case study from Southeast Australia in a low lying estuarine region with an increasingly urbanized population. The methodology shows a clear pathway in which to integrate multiple asset classes into a temporally based damage cost analysis. Such methodology will help address the timing of adaptation and allow for the development of trigger points to guide adaptation planning. Thus, the framework developed in this paper can be easily transferred to other regions and countries facing the same types of SLR risks. As SLR and inundation encroachment continue to occur, decisions regarding protection, repair, and retreat will be made depending on the resources available to local governments. The challenge is to balance decision making with both the timing of implementation as well as costs (both of action and inaction). By understanding the areas of land lost to inundation and the cost of inaction through time, local governments can assess the rationality of adaptation at points in the present and future.
Australia/Oceania
Sea Level Rise,Coastal Communities,Adaptation,Climate Change,Estuaries
4
Abstract only
No
88
Akegbejo-Samsons, Yemi. Development Challenges of Multi-Functional Coastal System in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management, Climate Change Management 2013, pp 107-116.
Documents and Reports
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-31110-9_7
Climate change and adaptation Niger
As coastal populations in Africa continue to grow and pressures on the environment from land-based and marine human activities increase, coastal and marine living resources and their habitats are being lost or damaged in ways that are both decreasing livelihood opportunities and aggravating poverty. Coasts are experiencing the adverse consequences of hazards related to climate and sea level. While physical exposure can significantly influence vulnerability for both human populations and natural systems, a lack of adaptive capacity is often the most important factor that creates a hotspot of human vulnerability. Nigeria’s Niger Delta is widely recognised for its rich and diverse biological resources and these natural systems form the foundation of the economy of the country, from which the majority of the population derive their livelihood. Threatened terrestrial and marine ecosystems translate to threatened livelihoods in Africa. In the Niger Delta of Nigeria exploitation of these non-living resources has damaged the coastal environment and has caused civil conflict. This paper presents the different categories of this system’s coastal resources and highlights the different methods of exploitation and the consequences of these methods. The paper exposes the different challenges of this multi-functional ecosystem of Africa’s most populous country, which also ranks fourth in the world oil producer’s list. It concludes by suggesting various ways of managing this oil-rich environment.
Africa
Climate Change,Adaptation,Coastal Resources,Livelihood,Poverty
4
No
89
Ahmed, Nesar, Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi and James F. Muir. The impact of climate change on prawn postlarvae fishing in coastal Bangladesh: Socioeconomic and ecological perspectives. Marine Policy, Volume 39, May 2013, Pages 224–233
Documents and Reports
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X12002060
Climate change and fisheries Bangladesh
In Bangladesh, prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming remains dependent on the capture of wild postlarvae as hatchery production is still inadequate. However, prawn postlarvae fishing has been accompanied by concerns over recent climate change. Different climatic variables including cyclone, salinity, sea level rise, water temperature, flood, rainfall, and drought have had adverse effects on coastal ecosystem, thus determining a decline in the availability of prawn postlarvae and thereby catch. The households of postlarvae fishers also face a variety of socioeconomic constraints due to climate change. Considering extreme vulnerability to the effects of climate change, an integrated approach needs to be introduced to cope with the challenges.
Asia
Shrimp,Larvae,Climate Change,Socio-economic Aspects
3
No
90
Rao, Prakash. Building Climate Resilience in Coastal Ecosystems in India: Cases and Trends in Adaptation Practices. In ‘Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management’ pp 335-349, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. 10.1007/978-3-642-31110-9_21
Documents and Reports
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-31110-9_21#
Climate change and adaptation India
Changes in precipitation, temperature, drought, and sea level rise a rise in sea level are increasingly being seen as affecting the world’s ecosystems and natural resource base. Recent reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have provided ample evidence of the importance of climate variability in the changing nature of natural resource ecology, as well as the vulnerability of communities and their livelihoods. Climate variability and the rise in the incidents of extreme events and disasters like cyclones are major threats to the coastal and marine ecosystems in the Indian subcontinent, e.g. low-lying islands and coastal regions, some of which are already facing partial submergence, resulting in shoreline changes. Most of the coastal ecosystems in the South Asian region have a very high population density and are dependent on an agro-economy, whilst increasing changes to the weather have often led to adverse impacts on the local eco-diversity. Ecosystem-dependent communities are particularly vulnerable where single-crop agriculture, fishing and harvesting of other local resources are practised. These in turn could be adversely affected by changes such as sea level rise, increase in salinity, changing patterns of rainfall, and an increase in moisture content in the atmosphere leading to increasing incidences of vector-borne diseases. Addressing traditional knowledge systems with new research ideas and the development of innovative technologies is the need of the hour in order to provide a suitable adaptation response in the face of adverse climate impacts and natural disasters. The paper discusses approaches and trends for enhancing the coping capacity of coastal communities through two cases in India from the Sundarbans in West Bengal and Tamil Nadu. The paper also throws light on integrating national/state policies and programmes for mainstreaming climate adaptation practices in development planning
Asia
India,Climate Change,Vulnerability,Traditional ecological knowladge
3
No
91
Ifejika, PI., EO Okunade, LI Ifejika, AN Asadu. Physical Assets Ownership of Fisherfolk in Fishing Communities of Kainji Lake Nigeria: Implications for Climate Change. Journal of Agricultural Extension, Vol. 16 (2), December 2012
Documents and Reports
http://www.ajol.info/index.php/jae/article/view/84524
Climate change and adaptation Nigeria
A probe was carried out to ascertain fisherfolk ownership of physical assets for fisheries activities in fishing communities’ vis-à-vis implication of climate change around Kainji Lake. Interview schedule was employed to generate primary data from 165 respondents in eleven fishing communities on western side of the lake and analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Information on personal characteristics revealed that most of the respondents were advanced in age, small scale artisan fisherfolk with many years of experience, self employed and married with children but had poor education. Physical assets owned fall into three categories of fishing asset (33.3%), fish processing asset (41.7%) and accessories (25%). Conspicuous assets owned were fishing net, wooden canoe, hook & line, fish drying net, improved banda and modified drum smoking kiln. Physical assets that use wood and fuelwood which impinged on climate change were fishing canoe, improved banda and modified drum smoking kiln. Correlates of improved banda and modified drum kiln were marital status and number of wives. It implies that marital family’s ownership of fish smoking processing assets contributed to climate change problems through deforestation thereby causing desertification, soil erosion, destruction of ecosystem and weather variations with serious consequences on water bodies, fisheries, and livelihood in fishery around the lake. Worrisome is zero ownership of solar tent dryer which uses renewable energy of the sun and friendly to climate change adaptation. In view of prevailing evidence, adaptation to climate change is subject to modification of solar net drier to meet fish smoking needs. In alternative is exploration of biomass energy sources that is sustainable like rice husk for fish smoking as a mitigation strategy.
Africa
Adaptation,Fishing Gear,Climate Change
4
No
92
Hobday, Alistair J. and Karen Evans. Detecting climate impacts with oceanic fish and fisheries data. Climatic Change, March 2013. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-013-0716-5
Documents and Reports
http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10584-013-0716-5.pdf
Climate change and fisheries World
Anthropogenic climate change is affecting the environment of all oceans, modifying ocean circulation, temperature, chemistry and productivity. While evidence for changes in physical signals is often distinct, impacts on fishes inhabiting oceanic systems are not easily identified, and therefore, quantification of responses is less common. Correctly attributing changes associated with a changing climate from other drivers is important for the implementation of effective harvest and management strategies and for addressing associated socio-economic impacts, particularly for countries highly dependent on oceanic resources. Data supporting investigation of responses of oceanic species to climate impacts include fisheries catch, fisheries-independent surveys, and conventional and electronic tagging data. However, there are a number of challenges associated with detecting climatic responses with these data, including (i) data collection costs (ii) small sample sizes (iii) limited time series relative to temporal scales at which environmental variability occurs, (iv) changing fisher and fisheries behavior due to non-climate drivers and (v) changes in population dynamics due to natural climate variability and non-climate drivers. We highlight potential biases and suggest strategies that should be considered when using oceanic fish and fisheries data in the evaluation of climate change impacts. Consideration of these factors is important when assessing variability in exploited species and designing management responses to climate or fisheries threats.
General
Climate Change,Fish Stock,Monitoring
3
No
93
Johann D. Bell, Chris Reid, Michael J. Batty, Patrick Lehodey, Len Rodwell, Alistair J. Hobday, Johanna E. Johnson, Andreas Demmke. Effects of climate change on oceanic fisheries in the tropical Pacific: implications for economic development and food security. Climatic Change, October 2012. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-012-0606-2
Documents and Reports
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-012-0606-2
Climate change and fisheries Pacific Island
The four species of tuna that underpin oceanic fisheries in the tropical Pacific (skipjack, yellowfin, bigeye and albacore tuna) deliver great economic and social benefits to Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs). Domestic tuna fleets and local fish processing operations contribute 3–20 % to gross domestic product in four PICTs and licence fees from foreign fleets provide an average of 3–40 % of government revenue for seven PICTs. More than 12,000 people are employed in tuna processing facilities and on tuna fishing vessels. Fish is a cornerstone of food security for many PICTs and provides 50–90 % of dietary animal protein in rural areas. Several PICTs have plans to (1) increase the benefits they receive from oceanic fisheries by increasing the amount of tuna processed locally, and (2) allocate more tuna for the food security of their rapidly growing populations. The projected effects of climate change on the distribution of tuna in the tropical Pacific Ocean, due to increases in sea surface temperature, changes in velocity of major currents and decreases in nutrient supply to the photic zone from greater stratification, are likely to affect these plans. PICTs in the east of the region with a high dependence on licence fees for government revenue are expected to receive more revenue as tuna catches increase in their exclusive economic zones. On the other hand, countries in the west may encounter problems securing enough fish for their canneries as tuna are redistributed progressively to the east. Changes in the distribution of tuna will also affect the proportions of national tuna catches required for food security. We present priority adaptations to reduce the threats to oceanic fisheries posed by climate change and to capitalise on opportunities.
Australia/Oceania
Tuna,Fisheries,Climate Change,Monitoring,Fish Stock
4
No
94
Cheilari, Anna, Jordi Guillen, Dimitrios Damalas and, Thomas Barbas. Effects of the fuel price crisis on the energy efficiency and the economic performance of the European Union fishing fleets. Marine Policy, Volume 40, July 2013, Pages 18–24
Documents and Reports
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X12002473
Climate change and fisheries European Union
Recent fuel price increases, together with future scarcity of fossil fuels and pollution have raised awareness about the efficient use of energy. Expenditure on marine fuel represents a significant component of the operational costs of the fishing fleets and, as a result, the profitability of the fishing fleets is very sensitive to fuel price variations. By assembling data from 54 fishing fleets around Europe, representing one fourth of the European Union (EU) fishing fleet in terms of vessel numbers and one third in terms of the volume of landings, the effects of the fuel price increase on the economic performance and the energy efficiency of the EU fleet, were estimated for the period 2002–2008. Results demonstrate declining trends in the economic indicators through the years, with a 33% reduction in profitability of the fleets since the beginning of the study. Most energy efficiency indicators, which featured a deteriorating trend over time, have improved their performance after 2004, when the first fuel price increase of the period was observed. However, results do vary across fleet segments.
Europe
Fishing Fleet,Fuel,Climate Change,Energy efficient
4
No
95
Nitivattananon, Vilas, Lam Vu Thanh Noi, Worapong Lohpaisankrit. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Case of Coastal Cities in South East Asia. Pp pp 597-614 in ‘Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management’, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-31110-9_39
Documents and Reports
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-31110-9_39
Climate change and adaptation South east Asia
As climate change is likely to have negative impacts on coastal areas in many regions including South East Asia, improved knowledge on the understanding of assessment methods and results is gaining interest. Based on an on-going project implemented by the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) and partners in South East Asia, with the goal to enhance local adaptive capacities through learning from the cooperative research results on climate change impacts in coastal cities of the region, this paper provides overall information and progressive results of the project, including a review of climate change vulnerability and risk assessment processes, as well as available tools/techniques for the assessment, whilst also conducting a rapid vulnerability assessment (RVA) with a case study. Conclusions and recommendations are also made for the next steps of the project and possible contributions to other related projects and cities
Asia
Vulnerability,Coastal Communities,Sea Level Rise,Climate Change
4
No
96
Poos, J. J., Turenhout, M. N. J., van Oostenbrugge, H., and Rijnsdorp, A. D. Adaptive response of beam trawl fishers to rising fuel cost – ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fss196.
Documents and Reports
http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/03/13/icesjms.fss196.short
Climate change and fisheries European Union
In this paper, we develop models to test different hypotheses on the optimal towing speed at which fuel savings are traded off against the reduction in catch due to the decrease in swept area. The model predicts that optimal towing speed is a decreasing function of fuel price and an increasing function of fish abundance and price. The model was fitted to vessel monitoring system (VMS) data. By means of mixture analysis, these VMS data were attributed to one of three behavioural modes: floating, towing, or navigating. Data attributed to the towing mode were used to determine the model that best fit the data. The preferred model includes a maximum towing speed and a component describing the decline in catch efficiency with decreasing towing speed. Towing speed is reduced by up to 14%. The savings obtained by reducing towing speed were estimated for each month and showed that vessels reduced their fuel consumption by between 0 and 40%.
Europe
Fishing Boats,Fuel,Adaptive management
3
No
97
Nwabeze, G. O, Erie, A. P and Erie, Gladys O. Fishers’ Adaptation to Climate Change in the Jebba Lake Basin, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Extension Vol. 16 (1), June 2012
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation Nigeria
The paper provides an analysis of adaptation of fishers’ households to climate change around Jebba Lake Basin, Nigeria. Fisheries of Jebba Lake Basin are presented as a system of dynamic trends, seasonality and shock. An analysis of livelihood diversification reveals that some households are more adaptable to environmental change than others. Fishers who have become overly specialised in fishing as sole livelihood activity are least able to adapt. The study thus recommends increased capabilities of fishers through formal enlightenment campaigns in respect of other livelihood portfolios outside fishing for better livelihood diversification.
Africa
Adaptation,Climate Change,Fishermen,Livelihood
1
No
98
Melnychuk, Michael C, Jeannette A. Banobi, Ray Hilborn. The adaptive capacity of fishery management systems for confronting climate change impacts on marine populations. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, March 2013 10.1007/s11160-013-9307-9
Documents and Reports
http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11160-013-9307-9.pdf
Climate change and fisheries World
Global climate change will affect the abundance, distribution, and life history timing of many exploited marine populations, but specific changes are difficult to predict. Management systems in which harvest strategies and tactics are flexible in responding to unpredictable biological changes are more likely to succeed in maintaining productive populations. We explore the adaptability of fisheries management systems in relation to oceanic warming rates by asking how two important management characteristics vary with temperature changes for >500 stocks. (1) Harvest control rules, a framework for altering fishing pressure in response to changes in the abundance of targeted species (primarily due to fishing), may provide the capacity for harvest policies to change in response to climate-driven abundance declines also. (2) Seasonal openings with flexible dates that involve in-season monitoring may allow managers to better respond to possible changes in the timing of life-history periods like spawning to prevent fishing seasons falling out of sync with species’ phenology. Harvest control rules were widely used across industrialized fisheries including in regions that experienced relatively high oceanic warming rates, but after controlling for regional factors we found no association between ocean warming and the use of harvest control rules. Flexible-date seasonal openings were rare compared to fixed-date seasonal openings, but tended to occur in areas with the greatest warming rates while fisheries without seasonal closures tended to occur in areas with the least observed temperature changes. We found no consistent evidence of recent ocean warming effects on the current biomass or exploitation rates relative to management targets of 241 assessed marine populations. Together, these results suggest that the oceanic areas expected to have the greatest climate impacts on populations do at least tend to contain fisheries that demonstrate the potential for adaptability to unpredictable climate impacts.
World
Fish Stock,Climate Change
4
No
99
Sterr, H. Richard Klein and Stefan Reese. Climate Change and Coastal Zones: An Overview of the State-of-the-Art on Regional and Local Vulnerability Assessment. Pp. 245-278 in ‘Climate change in the Mediterranean: socio-economic perspectives of impacts, vulnerability and adaptation’ (Eds. Giupponi, C.;Shechter, M.) 2003
Documents and Reports
http://www.sterr.geographie.uni-kiel.de/mare/Venice-paper-pdf.PDF
Climate change and adaptation Germany
This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in methodologies for assessing the vulnerability of coastal zones to climate change at regional and local scales. The focus of vulnerability assessment in coastal zones used to be on erosion and land loss due to sea-level rise. Methodologies now increasingly consider the wide range of climate and impact variables that play a part in determining coastal vulnerability, as well as non-climatic developments. The paper presents a conceptual framework for vulnerability assessment that identifies a number of system components that can be considered determinants of vulnerability. It then goes on to outline a number of steps that are required for the actual assessment of coastal vulnerability, such as scenario development, data collection and impact assessment. The approach is illustrated using a regional and local case study in Germany.
Europe
coastal zone management,Coastal Zones,Sea Level Rise,Vulnerability
3
No
100
Minar, M.H., M.B. Hossain and M.D. Shamsuddin. Climate Change and Coastal Zone of Bangladesh: Vulnerability, Resilience and Adaptability. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 13 (1): 114-120, 2013, ISSN 1990-9233. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2013.13.1.64121
Documents and Reports
http://idosi.org/mejsr/mejsr13(1)13/20.pdf
Climate change and adaptation Bangladesh
The coastal region of Bangladesh covers about 20% of total land area and over 30% of the cultivable lands of the country. It includes highly diverse ecosystems e.g. the world’s largest single tract of mangroves (the Sundarbans), beaches, coral reefs, dunes and wetlands. With its dynamic natural environments, provides a range of goods and services to the peoples of Bangladesh. It is agreed and documented that being a deltaic coastal country, Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change in the world. Climate related change in coastal zones embodies potential additional stress on systems that are already under intense and growing pressure. The country has already been facing several climate change effects such as increasing cyclones, flood frequency probabilities, erosion, inundation, rising water tables, salt water intrusion and biological effects. Coastal environments particularly at risk include mangroves, tidal deltas and low-lying coastal plains, sandy beaches, coastal wetlands, estuaries and coral reefs. These bio-geophysical possessions will have consequent effects on ecosystems and eventually affect socio-economic systems in the coastal zone. The Sundarbans, most important ecosystem of the country will be totally lost with one meter rise in sea level.
There are two options to minimize the impacts named mitigation and adaptation. It is needed to be considered both mitigation and adaptation options for Bangladesh, even though the country has very limited scope for mitigation. This is why mitigation involves global efforts to execute and adaptation is more local. As a result, effective adaptation policies and mitigation measures ought to be developed and implemented to minimize climate related impacts on Bangladesh
Asia
Climate Change,Adaptation,Vulnerability,Mangroves,Mitigation
3
No
101
Ruckelshaus , M., S.C. Doney, H.M. Galindo, J.P. Barry, F. Chan, J.E. Duffy, C.A. English, S.D. Gaines, J.M. Grebmeier , A.B. Hollowed , N. Knowlton, J. Polovina, N.N. Rabalais, W.J. Sydeman, L.D. Talley. Securing ocean benefits for society in the face of climate change. Marine Policy 40 (2013) 154–159.
Documents and Reports
http://www-pord.ucsd.edu/~ltalley/papers/2010s/ruckelshaus_etal_marinepolicy2013.pdf
Climate change and adaptation World
Benefits humans rely on from the ocean – marine ecosystem services – are increasingly vulnerable under future climate. This paper reviews how three valued services have, and will continue to, shift under climate change: (1) capture fisheries, (2) food from aquaculture, and (3) protection from coastal hazards such as storms and sea-level rise. Climate adaptation planning is just beginning for fisheries, aquaculture production, and risk mitigation for coastal erosion and inundation. A few examples are highlighted, showing the promise of considering multiple ecosystem services in developing approaches to adapt to sea-level rise, ocean acidification, and rising sea temperatures. Ecosystem-based adaptation in fisheries and along coastlines and changes in aquaculture practices can improve resilience of species and habitats to future environmental challenges. Opportunities to use market incentives – such as compensation for services or nutrient trading schemes – are relatively untested in marine systems. Relocation of communities in response to rising sea levels illustrates the urgent need to manage human activities and investments in ecosystems to provide a sustainable flow of benefits in the face of future climate change.
General
Adaptation,Climate Change,ecosystem services,Markets,EbA,Fisheries
4
No
102
Mustapha, M.K. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Artisanal Fisheries of Nigeria. J Earth Sci Climate Change 2013, 4:1 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7617.1000130
Documents and Reports
http://www.omicsonline.org/2157-7617/2157-7617-4-130.pdf
Climate change and fisheries Nigeria
Artisanal fisheries contribute to sustainable livelihoods of people in several ways accounting for more than 80% of total fish production in Nigeria. Climate change arising from global warming, increasing temperature, stratification and changes in ecosystem processes brings flooding, precipitation, evaporation, run-off and flow with potential
serious negative impacts on fish assemblages and productions, fishing activities, fishers catch per unit effort, fish breeding, morphology, resistance to species invasion, wild fish seed supply, fish meal and oil and likelihood of spread of vector-borne diseases. Climate change could also extirpate fish population in lakes. Fishing gears, fishing processing and marketing, fishing periods could be affected and at the extreme total abandonment of artisanal fisheries could occur on account of climate change. Understanding climate change and its impacts on the ecosystem will provide accurate decision, capacity building and adaptive management in tackling the problems as it will provide practical, scientific, technical and socio-economic actions to mitigate the challenges currently and in the future. Study of vulnerability of artisanal fisheries to climate change in the likelihood of episodic events of risk exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity should be the focus of scientific research in this decade. Climate change will produce synergistic and cumulative effects with considerable uncertainty to the extent, magnitude, rate and direction of changes and impacts. Thus, high confidence predictions models of climate change perturbations on fish response in terms of feedbacks, critical thresholds, adaptations, migrations, breeding, and recruitment and so on could mitigate the impacts and ensure sustainability of artisanal fisheries in Nigeria.
Africa
Adaptation,Africa,Artisanal Fisheries,Climate Change,Vulnerability,Models
4
No
103
Williams, M and M. Kalamandeen. Assessing the Adaptive Capacity of Coastal Communities in Guyana to Climate Change. Open Access Scientific Reports Vol 2(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/scientificreports.626
Documents and Reports
http://www.omicsonline.org/scientific-reports/2157-7617-SR-626.pdf
Climate change and adaptation Guyana
The impact from climate change may be more severe in developing countries, such as Guyana, where there is a high level of poverty, creating potential risks like damages to ecosystems, water resources and coastlines, impacts on food resources, particularly food crops, and health. At the community level, climate change damages are often centred on the environment, which is the main source of livelihood for rural communities. Livelihood opportunities are often instituted in traditional activities such as agroforestry, hunting, gathering, fishing or non-traditional activities such as tourism, monoculture agriculture and large-scale fishing. This research identifies hazards and vulnerabilities to climate change faced by two indigenous communities of Santa Rosa and Waramuri along the coast of Guyana; documented climate change vulnerabilities that are linked to communities’ livelihood; and identified historical and current indictors as well as potential coping strategies to climate change used by these communities.
Latin America
Coastal Communities,Climate Change,Livelihood,Adaptation
4
No
104
Rao, Prarthana, Raghavan Suresh, Pavan Srinath and Jangal Jayaram. Community Centred Governance in the Climate Change Affected Areas in India. Colloquium on Understanding Perspectives in Poverty Alleviation by the Centre for Poverty Analysis (CEPA), Colombo. June 30 – July 1, 2011.
Climate change and adaptation India
This paper summarises the first experiences of the Public Affairs Centre (PAC) in connecting the dots with regard to climate change, livelihoods and deprivation, and the regulatory framework that governs communities in southern India along the Gulf of Mannar. This is sought to be achieved with the design and application of the Climate Change Score Card (CCSC). This participatory tool draws liberally from the traditions of open source access and equitable participation offered through PRA and Citizen Report Cards. Opinion and experience from all stakeholders in the critical situation along the Gulf is matched with climate change analysis to offer all participants an equal opportunity to make informed decisions and suggest policy reform that will alter the ground situation of the area. The initial results of this investigation indicate a complex of formal livelihoods and subsistence mechanisms in the area. While many of these are traditional and family-bound, coping strategies by communities also result in new means of survival in often harsh circumstances. The primary effect of climate change has been to move communities to re-assess their survival chances in the wake of severe shifts in rainfall and temperature patterns, soil erosion, and loss of green cover over a relatively short span of time. The immediate economic impact of climate change has been that of loss of livelihoods, loss of livelihood spaces through coastal erosion and saline ingress, and alteration of livelihood patterns because of shifting weather patterns. The social impacts include internal displacements and altering settlement patterns, as well as migration to opportunity areas in cities, and the critical loss of livelihood skills as a result of lack of practice. The response of the administration towards these changes has generally been lethargic; however individual functionaries have expressed interest in the analysis. This is work in progress, and the CCSC will be tested in its full expression towards the end of 2011. The pilot stage has been completed.
Asia
Climate Change,Poverty,Adaptation,Governance,Livelihood,Economy
4
No
105
Lunduka, R.W. Multiple stakeholders’ economic analysis of climate change adaptation A case study of Lake Chilwa Catchment, Malawi. Country report submitted as part of the Economics of Climate Change in the Water Sector project funded by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and coordinated by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). 2013
Documents and Reports
http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/G03522.pdf
Climate change and adaptation Malawi
Lake Chilwa basin is an important water catchment that provides a livelihood to more than 117,031 farm families. The basin is endowed with a number of resources such as water, fish, birds and grass for thatching and constructing houses and boats, mats, fish traps, bird traps, and baskets. A variety of stakeholders use and manage the catchment with different, and sometimes conflicting, objectives. Due to an increase in the incidence of drought and erratic rainfall as a result of climate change, irrigation has been promoted and more land is being cleared to grow more rice and irrigated maize. This has increased soil erosion, causing siltation, and reduced the water flowing into the lake thereby reducing fish productivity. A multi-stakeholder analysis was conducted in the catchment to evaluate the economics of climate change adaptation. The results show that irrigation to increase rice and maize output is reducing the total benefits from the catchment. Qualitative ranking of costs and benefits by stakeholders show that irrigation imposes a huge cost on the environment, affecting the fishery and bird sectors. The ranking also shows that irrigation has had high levels of public investment but the benefits accrue to the private sector whereas the costs of soil and water conservation technologies, which have more environmental benefits, are privately borne. This study estimates that the loss in value due to the reduction in fish productivity is about US$ 1,003,580 per year. An additional US$ 249,460 a year is lost in irrigated land due to loss of soil fertility and siltation. To supplement their income after crop failure or reduction in fish catches, the communities in the catchment have increased bird hunting and doing craftwork with lake reeds. An increase in bird hunting is causing an estimated loss of US$ 59,238 a year from reductions in the bird population. Including soil and water conservation technologies in irrigation and rain-fed agriculture increases benefits all stakeholders. This helps improve the efficiency of the adaptation strategies being implemented in the other resource sectors – including closed seasons for fishing and bird hunting – and helps ensure they are sustainable. They would also yield an estimated additional US$ 8,473,433 a year worth of food crops on top of eliminating the losses to fisheries and bird resources. This shows how effective planning and implementation of climate change adaptation strategies in this catchment area needs thorough communication with all stakeholders.
Africa
Climate Change,Stakeholders,Lake Fisheries
4
No
106
de Carvalho Freitas, Carlos Edwar, Alexandre A. F. Rivas, Caroline Pereira Campos, Igor Sant’Ana, James Randall Kahn, Maria Angélica de Almeida Correa and Michel Fabiano Catarino. The Potential Impacts of Global Climatic Changes and Dams on Amazonian Fish and Their Fisheries. Pp 175-195 in ‘New Advances and Contributions to Fish Biology’, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/54549
Documents and Reports
http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/40952/InTech-The_potential_impacts_of_global_climatic_changes_and_dams_on_amazonian_fish_and_their_fisheries.pdf
Climate change and fisheries Bolivia
The Amazon River Basin, which encompasses the world’s largest remaining tropical rainforest, has the highest diversity of fish species of any region in the world. This chapter reviews the main scenarios for environmental alterations in the Amazon Basin, which is predicted to be a function of global climatic changes and dams, identifies the potential impacts of different scenarios of environmental alterations in the Amazon Basin on Amazonian freshwater fish populations, identifies the consequences of the predicted impacts on the Amazonian freshwater fish populations, taking into account the main characteristics of the population dynamics and illustrates the potential social and economic consequences for the local and regional fisheries and the people who depend on these fisheries.
Latin America
Fish Stock,Fisheries,Amazon,Climate Change,Socio-economic Aspects
4
No
107
Halls, A.S., & M. Johns. (2013). Assessment of the vulnerability of the Mekong Delta Pangasius catfish industry to development and climate change in the Lower Mekong Basin. Report prepared for the Sustainable Fisheries Partnership, January 2013, 95pp.
Documents and Reports
http://cmsdevelopment.sustainablefish.org.s3.amazonaws.com/2013/01/22/Pangasius%20Mekong%20Delta-4b2036ad.pdf
Climate change and fisheries Vietnam
During the foreseeable (20 year) future, the Pangasius aquaculture industry in the Vietnamese Delta will be exposed to significant changes to biophysical conditions caused by this upstream basin development and also climate change. To date, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the vulnerability of the aquaculture sector to this exposure. In those few examples where it has been the subject of assessments, potential impacts have been forecasted to be largely positive, providing a means to mitigate or ameliorate the widely acknowledged potential impacts on capture fisheries yield. The assessment described in this report aims to address this research need and thereby raise awareness among key stakeholders of their vulnerability to these development and climate change impacts and so helping them mobilise around the issues and communicate their concerns to the Vietnamese government. It supports the MacArthur Foundation Conservation and Sustainable Development Strategy objective: “Understand and respond to increased environmental pressures from development and climate change impacts”.
Asia
Climate Change,Fisheries,Fish Stock,Stakeholders,Vulnerability
3
No
108
Peterson, D.P., S. T. Wenger, B.E. Rieman and D.J. Isaak. Linking Climate Change and Fish Conservation Efforts Using Spatially Explicit Decision Support Tools. Fisheries, Vol 38 No 3, March 2013, www.fisheries.org
Documents and Reports
http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/boise/AWAE/scientists/profiles/Isaak/Peterson13CC%20_FishDecisionsSupport_Appendices.pdf
Climate change and fisheries World
Fisheries professionals are increasingly tasked with incorporating climate change projections into their decisions. Here we demonstrate how a structured decision framework, coupled with analytical tools and spatial data sets, can help integrate climate and biological information to evaluate management alternatives. We present examples that link downscaled climate change scenarios to fish populations for two common types of problems: (1) strategic spatial prioritization of limited conservation resources and (2) deciding whether removing migration barriers would benefit a native fish also threatened with invasion by a nonnative competitor. We used Bayesian networks (BNs) to translate each decision problem into a quantitative tool and implemented these models under
historical and future climate projections. The spatial prioritization BN predicted a substantial loss of habitat for the target species by the 2080s and provided a means to map habitats and populations most likely to persist under future climate projections. The barrier BN applied to three streams predicted that barrier removal decisions—previously made assuming a stationary climate—were likely robust under the climate scenario considered. The examples demonstrate the benefit of structuring the decision-making process to clarify management objectives, formalize assumptions, synthesize current understanding about climate effects on fish populations, and identify key uncertainties requiring further investigation.
General
Fisheries,Climate Change,Models,Decision Making,Conservation
3
No
109
Plummer, Ryan and Julia Baird. Adaptive Co-Management for Climate Change Adaptation: Considerations for the Barents Region. Sustainability 2013, 5, 629-642; doi:10.3390/su5020629
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation Canada
Adaptive co-management is a governance approach gaining recognition. It emphasizes pluralism and communication; shared decision-making and authority; linkages within and among levels; actor autonomy; and, learning and adaptation. Adaptive co-management is just starting to be applied for climate change adaptation. In drawing upon adaptive co-management scholarship and a case in progress of application for climate change adaptation in Niagara, Canada, key considerations for the Barents Euro-Arctic Region are identified. Realistic expectations, sensitivity to context, and cultivating conditions for success are highlighted as key considerations for future efforts to implement adaptive co-management approaches in the Barents Region.
N. America
Climate Change,Adaptive management,Co-management
3
No
110
Plummer, Ryan and Julia Baird. Adaptive Co-Management for Climate Change Adaptation: Considerations for the Barents Region. Sustainability 2013, 5, 629-642; doi:10.3390/su5020629
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation Canada
Adaptive co-management is a governance approach gaining recognition. It emphasizes pluralism and communication; shared decision-making and authority; linkages within and among levels; actor autonomy; and, learning and adaptation. Adaptive co-management is just starting to be applied for climate change adaptation. In drawing upon adaptive co-management scholarship and a case in progress of application for climate change adaptation in Niagara, Canada, key considerations for the Barents Euro-Arctic Region are identified. Realistic expectations, sensitivity to context, and cultivating conditions for success are highlighted as key considerations for future efforts to implement adaptive co-management approaches in the Barents Region.
N. America
Climate Change,Adaptive management,Co-management
3
No
111
Doubleday, Zoë A.,, Steven M. Clarke, Xiaoxu Li, Gretta T. Pecl, Tim M. Ward, Stephen Battaglene, Stewart Frusher, Philip J. Gibbs, Alistair J. Hobday, Neil Hutchinson, Sarah M. Jennings and Richard Stoklosa. Assessing the risk of climate change to aquaculture: a case study from south-east Australia. Aquaculture Environment Interactions, Vol. 3: 163–175, 2013. doi: 10.3354/aei00058
Documents and Reports
http://www.int-res.com/articles/aei2013/3/q003p163.pdf
Climate change and fisheries Australia
A qualitative screening-level risk assessment was developed to evaluate relative levels of risk from climate change to aquaculture industries. The assessment was applied to 7 major industries in the temperate south-east region of Australia and involved a simple, transparent and repeatable methodology that was appropriate for a range of different aquaculture systems and taxa. Two key stages were involved: the development of comprehensive expertise-based literature reviews or ‘species profiles’ and a scoring assessment, with the latter providing a defined framework within which industries could be ranked (from high to low risk). In addition to informing the second stage of the risk assessment process, the species’ profiles also highlighted important climate change drivers and key information uncertainties and knowledge gaps. There was good resolution among the scoring assessments, with only 2 industries receiving the same risk
score. The results indicated that oysters farmed from wild spat (Sydney rock oysters Saccostrea glomerata) were at most risk to climate change, with warm temperate hatchery-based finfish species (yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi) being the least at risk. This study provides critical guidance for scientists, resource managers and stakeholders for future research, both in addressing key knowledge gaps and focussing the development of more detailed risk analyses for high risk aquaculture industries in south-east Australia.
Europe
Aquaculture,Climate Change,Oyster,Fisheries
3
No
112
Williams, L and Antonio Rota. Impact of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture in the developing world and opportunities for adaptation. Fisheries Thematic Paper: Tool for project design
Documents and Reports
http://www.ifad.org/lrkm/pub/fisheries.pdf
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries World
This paper reviews the importance of fisheries and aquaculture, with particular reference to poor people in the developing world, and the likely impact of climate change on these activities and on food security. It highlights some practical measures that can be taken to adapt to the expected effects of climate change. These focus in particular on building the capacity of communities to adapt to climate change in ways that allow them to moderate potential damage, to take advantage of new opportunities and to cope with the consequences of climate change, and on enhancing the resilience of communities and the ecosystems on which they depend. The authors recommend basing interventions as much as possible on local practices and traditions.
General
Malawi,Mekong Delta,SIDS,Adaptation,Climate Change,Fisheries,Aquaculture,Food Security,Poverty
4
No
113
Kisnerr, Corinne. Climate Change in Thailand: Impacts and Adaptation Strategies. 2008.
Documents and Reports
http://www.climate.org/topics/international-action/thailand.htm
Climate change and adaptation Thailand
Thailand has begun implementing interesting strategies to adapt to climate change, to mitigate some of the effects that are already felt across sectors, and to protect farmland, coasts and cities. The lessons learned will prove useful to Thailand as it faces future climate challenges, and can be referenced by other Southeast Asian countries with similar situations.
Asia
Adaptation,Adaptive management,Climate Change
3
No
114
Thornton, Nigel. Realising Development Effectiveness: Making the Most of Climate Change Finance in Asia and the Pacific. A synthesis report from five country studies in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam. Prepared for the Asia Pacific Climate Change Finance and Aid Effectiveness Dialogue 19th–20th October 2010
Documents and Reports
www.aideffectiveness.org/cdde
Climate change and adaptation Bangladesh
Using the experience of five countries in Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam), this report considers whether funding for climate change is being managed in the most effective manner, based on the long history of lessons learnt from development assistance over the last 60 years. Much climate financing is in the form of global funds (also called ‘vertical funds’). As the World Bank has noted ‘global funds need to support country-led strategies and priorities’ to be effective and sustainable. The report suggests that, although global agreements to fund climate change have emerged over the last 20 years, challenges remain to making this finance fully effective and sustainable. Indeed, funding channels for climate change are proliferating, there are increased signs of fragmentation, and evidence that administrative and institutional requirements burden recipient countries unnecessarily.
Whilst it is recognised that providing external financing for any development activity is complicated, it appears that climate change financing is more complicated than most. In the diverse contexts of the 5 case study countries, some common themes emerge. Following on from these findings, the report includes the Bangkok Call for Action which are the recommendations arising from the Climate Change Finance and
Aid Effectiveness Dialogues meeting which took place 19–20 October in Thailand. It recommends that we apply what we know of how to manage external financing effectively more robustly to climate change funding
Asia
Finance,Climate Change
4
No
115
Campaign for Climate Justice. Carbon Trading and the Sundarbans: United States Interest conflicts with local people's rights. Campaign Paper: March 2011. Equity and Justice Working Group-Bangladesh and Humanitywatch
Documents and Reports
www.humanitybd.org; www.equitybd.org
Climate change and adaptation Bangladesh
Recently a boost in the debate on market mechanisms of climate change has been observed over the world. Carbon trading, particularly REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation), CDM (Clean Development Mechanism), and LULUCF (Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry) are some hot selling items now and on the table of Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and high profile green organisations. This paper discusses how selling carbon captured by the Sunderbans can generate funds; however, experience from other countries has shown that such sale of carbon credits is likely to result in the eviction from the forests of the locals and deprivation of livelihoods and a final denudation of the forests because of profit-driven motive.
Asia
Climate Change,carbon trading,Local Communities,Livelihood
4
No
116
OECD, “Development and Climate Change in Bangladesh: Focus on Coastal Flooding and the Sundarbans” Linking Climate Change Responses with Development Planning: Some Case Studies. Special Issue on Climate Change, OECD Papers Volume 4, No. 1, 2003.
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation Bangladesh
This report presents the integrated case study for Bangladesh carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tiered framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Bangladesh are assessed and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios in Bangladesh are analyzed to examine the proportion of development assistance activities affected by climate risks. A desk analysis of donor strategies and project documents as well as national plans is conducted to assess the degree of attention to climate change concerns in development planning and assistance. Third, an in-depth analysis is conducted for coastal zones, particularly the coastal mangroves – the Sundarbans – which have been identified as particularly vulnerable to climate change. There are also some examples of development policies and priorities in Bangladesh that might potentially conflict with climate change responses. The Bangladesh case study also highlights the importance of the trans-boundary dimension in addressing climate change adaptation. climate change risks should also not distract from aggressively addressing other critical threats, including shrimp farming, illegal felling of trees, poaching of wildlife, and oil pollution from barge traffic, that might already critically threaten the fragile ecosystems such as the Sundarbans even before significant climate change impacts manifest themselves.
Asia
Adaptation,Climate Change,Sunderban,Livelihood
4
No
117
OECD, Development and Climate Change in Fiji: Focus on Coastal Mangroves. Linking Climate Change Responses with Development Planning: Some Case Studies. Special Issue on Climate Change, OECD Papers Volume 4, No. 1, 2003
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation Fiji
This report presents the integrated case study for Fiji carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tier framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Fiji are assessed, and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios are analyzed to examine the proportion of donor activities affected by climate risks. A desk analysis of donor strategies and project documents as well as national plans is conducted to assess the degree of attention to climate change concerns in development planning and assistance. Third, an in-depth analysis is conducted for Fiji’s coastal mangroves which help reduce coastal inundation and storm surge damages, but are also themselves vulnerable to climate change. The in-depth analysis on coastal mangroves in this report however highlights the critical challenges that face the implementation or mainstreaming of no-regrets adaptation measures in Fiji. Mangroves protect against coastal erosion and storm surge damages, but are themselves vulnerable to sea level rise. Mangrove conservation is a no-regrets adaptation given the wide range of other ecosystem services they provide to local communities. There is however a trend for continued loss of mangrove cover in Fiji. One key reason is the significant undervaluation of mangroves which facilitates their conversion for development activity. Successful mainstreaming of even no-regrets adaptation responses in Fiji might therefore require greater policy coherence between climate change and development policies – appropriate valuation of mangrove services is one such example. There is also a need for a coastal management plan that prioritizes mangrove conservation, requiring adequate setbacks of development from the high water line to facilitate mangrove migration, and engaging local communities in these processes.
Oceania
Value,Mangroves,ecosystem services,Coastal Area Management
4
No
118
Bowen, A. and J. Rydge (2011), “Climate-Change Policy in the United Kingdom”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 886, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg6qdx6b5q6-en
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation United Kingdom
The United Kingdom started to pursue policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at a relatively early date and now has a comprehensive set of measures in place. It has set clear targets for emission reductions consistent with international goals of limiting global warming and has pioneered statutory underpinning of target-setting. On the international stage, it has been an active protagonist of a global deal to limit human-induced climate change. The new Government has endorsed the direction of previous policies in this area and is introducing further measures, despite heavy fiscal pressures. The United Kingdom is likely to reduce emissions by more than its near-term domestic targets and its target under the Kyoto Protocol, outperforming many OECD countries in the latter respect. But some of the success has been due to ‘one-off’ factors such as the ‘dash for gas’, reductions in non-CO2 greenhouse gases in the 1990s and the recent recession, rather than explicit climate-change policies. The pace of decarbonisation of the power sector has been slow and the spread of renewable energy technologies limited. Implicit carbon prices vary across sectors, and should be harmonized to increase the cost efficiency of policy. The unevenness partly reflects the way in which policies have proliferated and overlap and a simplified structure would be desirable. A step–change in the pace of emission reductions is required to put the UK on the path towards its ambitious 2050 target. Given the central role of the EU emissions trading scheme, a key element of the UK strategy should be to seek tighter quotas within the EU scheme. Preparations to adapt to climate impacts also need to be stepped up, focusing on the provision of more information, better risk-assessment frameworks and more advanced metrics for monitoring and evaluation of adaptation planning
Europe
Climate Change,GHG,emissions,Quota
3
No
119
Aboud, Georgina. Gender and Climate Change - Supporting Resources Collection. Copyright Institute of Development Studies November 2011
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation,Role of Women World
This Supporting Resources Collection (SRC) forms one part of the Cutting Edge Pack on Gender and Climate Change. It complements the Overview Report, which highlights the need to put people at the centre of climate change responses, paying particular attention to the challenges and opportunities that climate change presents in the struggle for gender equality. The Overview Report promotes a ‘transformative’ approach in which women and men have an equal voice in decision-making on climate change and broader governance processes and are given equal access to the resources necessary to respond to the negative effects of climate change; where both women’s and men’s needs and knowledge are taken into account; and where the broad social constraints that limit women’s access to strategic and practical resources no longer exist. This first section explains what is in the SRC, the key issues addressed, the structure, and the processes that led to its development, as well as explaining key terms relating to gender and climate change.
General
Gender,Climate Change,Governance
4
No
120
Skinner, Emmeline. Gender and Climate Change - Overview Report. The Institute of Development Studies, November 2011
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation,Role of Women World
Climate change is increasingly being recognised as a global crisis, but responses to it have so far been overly focused on scientific and economic solutions, rather than on the significant human and gender dimensions. This report highlights the need to put people at the centre of climate change responses, paying particular attention to the challenges and opportunities that climate change presents in the struggle for gender equality.
It advocates for an approach in which women and men have an equal voice in decision-making on climate change and broader governance processes and are given equal access to the resources necessary to respond to the negative effects of climate change; where both women's and men's needs and knowledge are taken into account and climate change policymaking institutions and processes at all levels are not biased towards men or women; and where the broad social constraints that limit women’s access to strategic and practical3resources no longer exist. The report shows that there is much to learn from innovative, gender-aware approaches to climate change that are already happening at the local level, led by non-governmental organisations, communities and individuals, which are leading to transformations in gender and social inequalities in some cases. National, regional and international initiatives are also playing a key role in promoting the need to integrate gender dimensions into all climate change policy and practice
General
Gender,Climate Change
4
No
121
Gender and Climate Change. In Brief. Bridge Bulletin, Issue 22, November 2011.
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation,Role of Women Colombia
Climate change is increasingly being recognised as a global crisis, but responses to it have so far been overly focused on scientific and economic solutions. How then do we move towards more people-centred, gender-aware climate change policies and processes? How do we respond to the different needs and concerns of women and men, and also challenge the gender inequalities that mean women are more likely to lose out than men in the face of climate change? This In Brief sets out why it is vital to address the gender dimensions of climate change. It maps pathways for making climate change responses more gender aware and – potentially – transformative. It includes inspiring examples of local, gender-aware innovations in Colombia and India. The case studies have been produced collaboratively through participatory workshops, semi-structured interviews and site visits with FUNDAEXPRESIÓN in Colombia and the Community
Awareness Centre (CAC) in India. FUNDAEXPRESIÓN plays a key role in promoting strong local networks to create resilience to climate change and CAC engages women and men in developing relevant solutions that empower women.
Asia,General,Latin America
Adaptation,Climate Change,Gender
4
No
122
JotoAfrika, Adapting to Climate Change in Africa. Jotoafrika. Issue 6, March 2011
newsletters
Climate change and adaptation Cameroon
This issue of Joto Afrika provides case studies of local knowledge in action across Africa, and success stories from research to showcase how gender analysis and representation are involved in climate adaptation. The case studies are from Togo, Cameroon, Namibia, Tanzania, South Africa and Kenya. Other articles discuss the role of women as key players in climate change and the importance of including women in the adaptation process.
Africa
Adaptation,Adaptive management,Climate Change,Women,Gender
4
No
123
Gurgaze, Mustafa. Women Led Climate Change Campaign. Protecting and Preserving Mangroves. Pakistan Fisherfolk Forum. A presentation. 2012
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation Pakistan
This presentation deals with women led and media centred action against filling up mangrove areas and land grabbers. Results achieved so far include stopping cutting of mangroves along the coast of Karachi, the mangroves cutting case has been highlighted
nationally and internationally, good awareness about the importance of mangroves and conservation of nature has been raised in the fisher communities and masses and good networking and close coordination among the CSOs and relevant departments of government have been promoted.
Asia
Mangroves,Climate Change,Women,Conservation
3
No
124
Oxfam, Gender, Disaster Risk Reduction, and Climate Change Adaptation: A Learning Companion Oxfam Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation Resources. Oxfam, 2010.
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation,Role of Women World
This Learning Companion aims to provide Oxfam programme staff with the basis for incorporating gender analysis and women’s rights into Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) programming. Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction are priorities for Oxfam GB, as are strengthening women’s rights and gender equality.
General
Climate Change,Disaster,Disaster management,Women,Rights,Gender
4
No
125
Vunisea, Aliti. The Challenges of Planning and Managing Pacific coastal fisheries and the impact of climate change. ‐a gender perspective. A presentation. The Secretariat of the Pacific Community working in 26 countries of the Pacific.
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation,Role of Women South Pacific Islands
This is a case study of a coastal fisheries project (EU Funded) targeting 3 main areas‐1. resource stock status, 2.users status‐gender consideration 3. Managing and planning fisheries. The focus is on understanding the role of women in climate change and how their involvement has to be ensured.
Oceania
Women,Coastal Fisheries,Climate Change,Gender,Stock Assessment,Resources Management
3
No
126
Levina, Ellina, John Jacob, Luis Enrique Ramos Bustillos, and Ivonne Ortiz. Policy frameworks for adaptation to climate change in coastal zones: The Case of the Gulf of Mexico. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. COM/ENV/EPOC/IEA/SLT(2007)2.
Documents and Reports
www.oecd.org/env/cc/aixg
Climate change and adaptation Mexico
This paper is the third of a series of AIXG papers on the role that national policy frameworks of various sectors play in adaptation to climate change. The aim of this paper is to identify and analyse policy frameworks that are important for facilitating adaptation to climate change impacts in coastal zones. The paper is based on a case study analysis of the Gulf of Mexico and examines two countries, the US and Mexico. It considers two climate change effects specific to coastal areas: sea level rise and storms. Other climate change impacts such as changes in temperature, precipitation and winds that also affect coastal areas are beyond the scope of this analysis
Central America
Climate Change,Adaptation,Policy,Coastal Zones
4
No
127
Gagnon-Lebrun, F. and S. Agrawala (2006), Progress on Adaptation to Climate Change in Developed Countries: An Analysis of Broad Trends, ENV/EPOC/GSP(2006)1/FINAL, OECD, Paris
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation World
This paper provides an assessment of broad trends in progress on assessment and implementation of adaptation to climate change in “developed countries”, defined here as being Member states of the OECD and/or Parties listed under Annex I of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Primary inputs to this analysis are the National Communications (NCs) by these countries to the UNFCCC. NCs follow a standardised reporting format which facilitates cross-national comparison. They also reflect “whole government” perspectives. At the same time, however, the coverage of particular issues within these documents need not be comprehensive, nor might it necessarily reflect policy priorities on the ground. Therefore, this paper also examines other policies and projects which highlight progress on implementing adaptation, but which have not been reflected in the NCs. The analysis shows that climate change impacts and adaptation receive limited attention within the NCs relative to the discussion of greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation policies. Within the discussion
on impacts and adaptation in the NCs, it is the assessment of future climatic changes and impacts that tend to dominate. The discussion on adaptation, meanwhile, is often limited to the identification of generic options. Some developed countries do identify existing policies, particularly in the area of natural hazards management, that might be synergistic with adaptation to climate change. However, only very few countries currently report on actual implementation of anticipatory measures that take into account future climate change. A preliminary review was also conducted of adaptation-related initiatives that have not (yet) been covered in the NCs. This review indicates that there is, in fact, a small but growing number of cases where climate change is being considered in anticipatory planning. Some of these measures were undertaken as
“one-off” projects more or less autonomously by engineers and project managers, particularly in the design of long-lived infrastructure. More recently, there is also a more concerted effort in a few developed countries to develop more comprehensive national and regional adaptation strategies and frameworks. This is clearly an encouraging sign, although it is too early at this stage to assess the eventual impact of such measures.
General
Developing Countries,Climate Change,Adaptation,Disaster management,GHG
4
No
128
Arend, Elizabeth and Sonia Lowman. Governing climate funds what will work for women? Gender Action, WEDO, Oxfam, 2011.
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation,Role of Women World
As the international community mobilizes in response to global climatic changes, climate funds must ensure the equitable and effective allocation of funds for the world’s most vulnerable populations. Women and girls, disproportionately vulnerable to negative climate change impacts in developing countries, have largely been excluded from climate change finance policies and programmes. This report examines four funds –climate funds and non-climate funds, to draw out the lessons for gender integration in global finance mechanisms. Women and girls must not only be included in adaptive and mitigative activities, but also recognized as agents of change who are essential to the success of climate change interventions.
General
Women,Climate Change,Finance,Adaptation,Mitigation,Policy,Gender
4
No
129
Skutsch, Margaret M. Protocols, treaties and action: the ‘climate change process’ through gender spectacles. Gender and Development, Vol. 10, No. 2, Climate Change (Jul., 2002), pp. 30-39. Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
Documents and Reports
http://www.energia.org/fileadmin/files/media/pubs/skutsch_climate_gender.pdf
Climate change and adaptation,Role of Women World
This paper starts by assessing the extent to which gender considerations have been taken into account in the international processes concerning the development of climate change policy. Finding that there has been very little attention to gender not only in the protocols and treaties but also in the debates around them, the paper goes on to consider whether there are in fact any meaningful gender considerations as regards (a) emission of greenhouse gases (b) vulnerability to climate change and (c) participation in projects under climate funding. It concludes by suggesting some areas in which attention to gender might not only improve the effectiveness of climate interventions but also benefit women, particularly in the area of adaptation.
General
Gender,Climate Change,treaties,Women
4
No
130
Mohamed, K.S., T.V. Sathianandan, P.U. Zacharia, P.K. Asokan, P.K. Krishnakumar, K.P. Abdurahiman, Veena Shettigar and R.N. Durgekar. Depleted and Collapsed Marine Fish Stocks along Southwest Coast of India – A Simple Criterion to Assess the Status. Coastal Fishery Resources of India - Conservation and Sustainable Utilisation.
Documents and Reports
Climate change and fisheries India
The present study is aimed at determining those fish stocks from the southwest coast of India which can be considered as depleted and collapsed using a fairly robust and simple methodology. The ranking of the catches of depleted and collapsed species was then examined to derive long-term trends and to arrive at restoration plans
Asia
Climate Change,Fish Stock,Stock Assessment,Stock Management
4
No
131
OECD (2010), The Economics of Adapting Fisheries to Climate Change, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264090415-en
Documents and Reports
Climate change and fisheries World
The OECD Committee for Fisheries (COFI) hosted an international workshop entitled “The Economics of Adapting Fisheries to Climate Change” on 10-11 June, 2010 in Busan, Korea to address challenges and provide insights to policy makers. Adaptation to climate change was the primary focus of this Workshop in order to allow for a fulsome discussion on this topic. The Workshop was designed to provide guidance to fisheries policy makers in terms of when to implement policy changes or develop new policies or approaches to adapt to climate change impacts. Furthermore, it was conceived to allow for an examination of the “tools” in the fisheries manager’s “toolbox” in terms of their suitability in the face of climate change, as well as to develop an understanding of the economic, social and environmental information that can underpin decisions on climate change adaptation.
General
Climate Change,Fisheries,Adaptation,Policy,Socio-economic Aspects
4
No
132
de Serres, A., J. Llewellyn and P. Llewellyn (2011), “The Political Economy of Climate Change Mitigation Policies: How to Build a Constituency to Address Global Warming?”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 887, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg5d5nhcnkb-en
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation World
Developments over the past few years have shown that reforms to address climate change are no less difficult to implement than reforms in other areas, even if the objective of limiting global warming is broadly accepted. In the case of global public goods such as the climate, the political challenge is further complicated by the need to convince voters that domestic action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is worth taking, notwithstanding the cost and uncertainties regarding other countries’ commitments. This paper seeks to draw a number of political-economy lessons from reform experience in other economic areas, and considers how these lessons can be applied to the particular case of climate change mitigation policy. It examines the main ingredients for building a constituency for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction policies at home, stressing the need to establish the credibility of the overall objective and intermediate targets. It also reviews the challenges faced in securing successful implementation of the least-cost set of policies, focusing on how to address the concerns raised by the uneven distribution of costs and benefits of pricing instruments without undermining their effectiveness.
General
Adaptation,Climate Change,Action plan,GHG,Policy
4
No
133
Herr, D. Pidgeon, E. and Laffoley, D. (eds.) (2011). Blue Carbon Policy Framework: Based on the first workshop of the International Blue Carbon Policy Working Group. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN and Arlington, USA: CI. vi+39pp.
Climate change and adaptation World
The Blue Carbon Policy Framework provides the basis for a coordinated program to support the development and implementation of strategic policy and incentive mechanisms for conservation, restoration and sustainable use of coastal Blue Carbon ecosystems. The framework is designed to: 1. Define activities and a timeline to increase policy development, coastal planning and management activities that support and promote avoided degradation, conservation, restoration and sustainable use of coastal Blue Carbon systems; 2. Define actions and a timeline to develop and implement financial and other incentives for climate change mitigation through conservation, restoration and sustainable use of coastal Blue Carbon; 3. Identify key stakeholders, partners and Blue Carbon champions to implement the identified policy actions and define materials and products needed to support such activities; 4. Identify opportunities, limits and risks of advancing Blue Carbon in different international climate, coastal and ocean policy. The framework is intended to guide and coordinate the activities of Blue Carbon stakeholders including NGOs, government, private sector and research institutions from the marine and the climate change communities. Not all activities are intended for all Blue Carbon stakeholders. Rather, the framework identifies different activities for different stakeholders. The framework will be updated as needed by the International Blue Carbon Policy Working Group in coordination with the broader group of interested stakeholders.
General
blue carbon,Climate Change,Adaptation
3
No
134
UNISDR. Biodiversity and ecosystem management in South Asia: current status of coastal and marine areas. Working draft for the workshop on Integration of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in to Biodiversity/ Ecosystem management New Delhi, March 2012
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation Bangladesh
This is a working draft for the workshop on Integration of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in to Biodiversity/ Ecosystem management. Chapter 1 describes South Asia and the impacts of climate change on natural disasters, biodiversity, protected areas and coastal ecosystems, wave climates, fisheries and aquaculture, coastal zone management and human well being. Chapter 2 describes the marine and coastal protected areas in the five countries of South Asia. Chapter 3 gives the socio-economic and demographic profile, Chapter 4 provides the institutional review, Chapter 5 gives the current status of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in the focus countries while Chapter 6 discusses various issues pertaining to climate change, disaster risk reduction and ecosystem management. The countries covered are Bangladesh, India. Sri Lanka, Pakistan and the Maldives.
Asia
Coastal Ecosystems,Climate Change,Adaptation,Disaster,Disaster management
4
No
135
Allison, Edward H., Allison L. Perry, Marie-Caroline Badjeck, W. Neil Adger, Katrina Brown, Declan Conway, Ashley S. Halls, Graham M. Pilling, John D. Reynolds, Neil L. Andrew and Nicholas K. Dulvy. Vulnerability of national economies to the impacts of climate change on fisheries. Fish and Fisheries, Volume 10, Issue 2, pages 173–196, June 2009. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2008.00310.x
Documents and Reports
Climate change and fisheries World
Anthropogenic global warming has significantly influenced physical and biological processes at global and regional scales. The observed and anticipated changes in global climate present significant opportunities and challenges for societies and economies. We compare the vulnerability of 132 national economies to potential climate change impacts on their capture fisheries using an indicator-based approach. Countries in Central and Western Africa (e.g. Malawi, Guinea, Senegal, and Uganda), Peru and Colombia in north-western South America, and four tropical Asian countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Pakistan, and Yemen) were identified as most vulnerable. This vulnerability was due to the combined effect of predicted warming, the relative importance of fisheries to national economies and diets, and limited societal capacity to adapt to potential impacts and opportunities. Many vulnerable countries were also among the world’s least developed countries whose inhabitants are among the world’s poorest and twice as reliant on fish, which provides 27% of dietary protein compared to 13% in less vulnerable countries. These countries also produce 20% of the world’s fish exports and are in greatest need of adaptation planning to maintain or enhance the contribution that fisheries can make to poverty reduction. Although the precise impacts and direction of climate-driven change for particular fish stocks and fisheries are uncertain, our analysis suggests they are likely to lead to either increased economic hardship or missed opportunities for development in countries that depend upon fisheries but lack the capacity to adapt.
World
Vulnerability,Fisheries,Climate Change,Economy,Poverty
5
No
136
UNISDR and UNDP Toolkit: Ecosystem Management of Coastal and Marine Areas in South Asia 08 October 2012
Documents and Reports
http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/Environment%20and%20Energy/biodiversity/UNISDR-UNDP-Ecosystem-Management-of-Coastal-and-Marine-Areas-in-South-Asia.pdf
Climate change and adaptation World
This toolkit offers a step-by-step guide for integrating Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation into the coastal and marine ecosystem management that will be quite useful for the field practitioners of coastal areas in the sub-region. This publication builds on UNDP’s new Biodiversity and Ecosystems Global Framework, titled The Future We Want: Biodiversity and Ecosystems – Driving Sustainable Development that calls for a shift in focus towards the positive opportunities provided by biodiversity and natural ecosystems, in terms of harnessing their potential for sustainable development.
This publication is an outcome of a South Asian Regional Consultation of Experts held in New Delhi in March 2012 organized jointly by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) India, and the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), Asia and the Pacific Secretariat. This publication serves as source material for taking an integrated approach to ecosystem management for effective risk reduction. Equally it is hoped that it will inform the ongoing consultations on the Post-2015 Development Agenda and Disaster Risk Reduction frameworks. It is believed that this is an important step towards building resilience of nations and communities in the South Asian sub-continent to shocks and natural disasters.
General
Adaptation,Climate Change,Disaster,Disaster management,Sustainable Development
4
No
137
Ferrer, E., S.Dalisay (Eds.). 2010. Workshop on Women in Fisheries and Climate Change. Quezon City. Philippines. Organizing Committee for the Workshop on “Women in Fisheries and Climate Change” c/o CERD, 102-E, R.L. Building, Kamuning Road, Quezon City, Philippines.
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation,Role of Women Philippines
The National Workshop on Women in Fisheries and Climate was held from March 9-11, 2010, in Villa Alzhun Resort in Tagbilaran City, Bohol, the Philippines. It aimed to (1) determine climate change impacts on the women in coastal/fishing communities; (2) determine what issues/challenges have arisen and how women have addressed/coped with these new challenges both at the level of the household and community organizations; (3) identify key government initiatives/policies that have been helpful to women in fisheries and to draw lessons from these; (4) identify areas for development work surrounding women in fisheries within the context of climate change; (5) define the agenda and strategy for sustaining life and livelihood in fisheries in the future particularly in the light of climate change. The workshop included lectures/ presentations from resource persons, sharing of experiences by women in how they dealt with climate change and two workshop sessions. The first session dealt with listing down specific experiences related to climate change and effects to their livelihood activities in particular and fisheries in general. The second workshop dealt with sharing of plans on how the participants would be able to deal with issues/ challenges posed by climate change as raised in earlier sessions as well as identifying groups or organizations that can help in dealing with these issues.
Asia
Adaptation,Women,Climate Change,Fisheries
4
No
138
FMERI, Climate Change and Challenges in the Fisheries and Aquaculture Sector. Background paper in preparation for international conference on fisheries and globalization, 19-21 September 2012, Iloilo, Philippines
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries World
The paper discusses the global fish crisis, the root causes and impacts of climate change; fisheries and aquaculture activities contributing to climate change, impact of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture, and also discusses the adaptation and mitigation strategies with regard to climate change by small scale fisherfolk.
Asia,General
Fisheries,Aquaculture,Climate Change,Adaptation
3
No
139
Bidwai, Praful. An India That Can Say Yes: a Climate-Responsible Development Agenda for Copenhagen and Beyond. Heinrich Böll Stiftung - India, New Delhi, India. 2010
books
Climate change and adaptation India
Climate change is one of the gravest crises facing humanity. It is already affecting millions of people, especially the poor in the developing Global South. Yet, the international community has failed to mobilise an adequate response to it, which demands a comprehensive, strong, legally binding agreement, with rapid and drastic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, massive adaptation efforts, development of low-carbon technologies, and radical lifestyle change. The industrialized countries of the North have refused to fulfil their obligation to reduce emissions and are reluctant to undertake legally binding post-2012 commitments. The South says it cannot reduce emission without compromising on economic growth and human development. Is there a way out of the climate negotiations impasse which can prevent irreversible climate change and yet promote equitable development and poverty eradication? This book shows that climate-responsible development is both possible and necessary. It analyses the climate negotiations process, North-South and rich-poor fault-lines, flaws in market-based approaches, and various burden-sharing proposals focused on development equity. It argues that the rich in the South should be brought into the mitigation net and ‘emerging economies’ like China and India must join the global climate mitigation effort even while maintaining the principle of North-South differentiation in responsibility.
The book analyses the National Action Plan on Climate Change and its eight Missions, and proposes alternative equitable approaches. Instead of hiding behind the poor, and refusing anything other than a per capita emissions norm for burden-sharing, India can and should take far-reaching mitigation and adaptation measures while focusing on raising the living standard of its poor and defending North-South equity globally. It proposes a practical agenda of action related to grassroots concerns and people’s mobilizations on livelihood issues which are adversely impacted by climate change.
Asia
Climate Change,Development,Policy
4
No
140
Siddiqui, S., S. Upadhyay, S. Chohan. Making an environmentally sensitive and socially equitable Solar Energy Development in India: Using legal instruments in response to climate change. A policy brief. Heinrich Böll Stiftung – India. 2011
books
Climate change and adaptation India
This policy brief has been prepared as a part of the larger study on the legal and institutional response to the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission. The study provides an insight contrary to the assumptions made under the JNNSM that there is ‘zero’ environmental impact of solar energy development in the country. Besides, it advocates the use of legal instruments to make the JNNSM socially equitable and environmentally sustainable.
Asia
Energy efficient,emissions,Climate Change,Adaptation
2
No
141
Delhi Platform, Gujarat Agriculture Labour Union and International Union of Foodworkers. Where have all the seasons gone? Current Impacts of Climate Change in Gujarat. Published by Delhi Platform, Gujarat Agriculture Labour Union (GALU) and International Union of Foodworkers (IUF).
books
Climate change and adaptation India
This report reveals the already considerable impacts of global warming on small and marginal farmers and on agricultural labour in northern and eastern Gujarat. The report is based on conversations with residents in villages of Gujarat. Residents reported rise in winter temperature and a consequent loss of dew for the winter crops, irregularity in rainfall, delays in the main southwest monsoon and a decline in rains in June, more intense rainfall events, a lot of rain in fewer days, patchiness in rainfall over a region and a rise in summer temperatures and heat. Whereas people in villages had expectedly a clear idea of changes in rainfall and other climatic patterns, there was very little awareness about why it was happening or that global warming caused by human activity was to blame. The concluding chapter suggests that responses would need to be at different levels.
Asia
Climate Change,Impact,Poverty,Agriculture,Adaptation
4
No
142
Becken, Susanne and John E. Hay. Climate Change and Tourism. Earthscan from Routledge. 2012
books
Climate change and adaptation World
The contribution of tourism to climate change, and the likely consequences of climate change for key tourist destinations, has been well reported and discussed. Yet, there is a lack of evidence-based systematic practical advice as to how the tourism industry should respond to the challenge of climate change. Building on a sound conceptual understanding of the links between climate change and tourism, this book shows how the tourism sector might best respond. It not only focuses on the roles of supportive policies and institutions in ensuring a strong "enabling environment" for practical responses, but also on the practical responses themselves. This practical approach is presented through a large number of case studies and examples which illustrate how policy and industry initiatives have been implemented in tourism, and if or why they were successful. The majority of examples come from places such as the Caribbean, Spain, the Maldives, Nepal, and the UK, as well as Australia, New Zealand and other parts of the Pacific. The examples are presented within an overall framework that facilitates the translation of adaptation and mitigation policies into practice.
General
Tourism,Caribbean,Spain,Nepal,Australia,New Zealand,Climate Change
4
No
143
The Social and Behavioural Aspects of Climate Change - Linking Vulnerability, Adaptation and Mitigation. (Eds. Pim Martens and Chiung Ting Chang). Greenleaf Publishing, UK. 2010
books
Climate change and adaptation European Union
The book is based on the research programme "Vulnerability, Adaptation and Mitigation" (VAM) which ran from 2004 to 2010. It presents a cluster of case studies of industries, communities and institutions which each show how vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation analyses can be integrated using social behavioural sciences. Each chapter makes specific recommendations for the studied industry sector, community or institution, analyses the latest research developments of the field and identifies priorities for future research. The chapters are industries, local communities and institutions.The book argues that the inherent complexity of climate change will ultimately require a much more integrated response both scientifically – to better understand multiple causes and impacts – as well as at the scientific/policy interface, where new forms of engagement between scientists, policy-makers and wider stakeholder groups can make a valuable contribution to more informed climate policy and practice.
Africa,Central America,Europe
Climate Change,Vulnerability,Adaptation,Mitigation,Industries,Community,Institutions
4
No
144
McNamara, Karen Elizabeth and Shirleen Shomila Prasad, 2013. Valuing Indigenous Knowledge for Climate Change Adaptation Planning in Fiji and Vanuatu. TKI Bulletin, Topical Issues and Series, July 2013. UNU-IAS.
Documents and Reports
http://www.unutki.org/news.php?news_id=182&doc_id=39
Climate change and adaptation Fiji
Pacific Island communities are heavily reliant on natural resources to sustain their livelihoods and as a consequence they have developed an intimate understanding of their local environment. Communities have been using their knowledge of the land and sea to monitor changes in their local surroundings, use and manage resources, and adapt to local environmental changes and extreme weather events. Increasingly this knowledge is being recognised as a crucial ingredient in community-based climate change adaptation planning. This article explores how three communities in Fiji and three communities in Vanuatu have adapted to local environmental change or events. Some of the strategies used by locals have included: re-vegetating coastal foreshores with native species; careful household preparation prior to cyclones or flooding events; using innovative water storage practices during times of drought; and employing food preservation strategies during times of cyclones or drought. The article seeks to build on discussions concerning the value and importance of Indigenous knowledge in planning for resilient communities in the future.
Australia/Oceania
Community Based Management,Indigenous Communities,Indigenous Knowledge,resilience,Resources Management
4
No
145
Salagrama, V. Climate Change and Fisheries, 2014: Perspectives from Small-Scale fishing communities in India on measures to protect lives and livelihoods. Summary document of a 2011 study. ICSF, 2014
Documents and Reports
Climate change and fisheries,Climate change and adaptation India
The International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF), with financial support from Heinrich Böll Stiftung-India, undertook a study in 2011 with the aim to highlight the perspectives of fishing communities on climate change and its implications on their lives and livelihoods, and to highlight the importance of developing and implementing adaptation and mitigation measures through consultative processes to address their poverty and food-security issues. The study was undertaken in selected locations in four coastal states of India, two on the east coast (Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal) and two on the west coast (Maharashtra and Kerala). Alongside the fishing communities, relevant institutional stakeholders in fisheries were consulted for their perspectives on climate change and to assess the current policy/institutional/research framework to deal with the issue. This summary document presents the key findings from the study as well as suggested actions to reduce vulnerability and enhance the resilience of fishers.
Asia
West Bengal,Vulnerability,Small Scale Fisheries,resilience,Maharashtra,Kerala,India,Fishing Communities,Climate Change,Andhra Pradesh,Adaptation
4
No
146
Salagrama, V. Climate Change and Fisheries, 2014: Perspectives from Small-Scale fishing communities in India on measures to protect lives and livelihoods. Summary document of a 2011 study in Bangla. ICSF, 2014.
books
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries India
The International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF), with financial support from Heinrich Böll Stiftung-India, undertook a study in 2011 with the aim to highlight the perspectives of fishing communities on climate change and its implications on their lives and livelihoods, and to highlight the importance of developing and implementing adaptation and mitigation measures through consultative processes to address their poverty and food-security issues. The study was undertaken in selected locations in four coastal states of India, two on the east coast (Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal) and two on the west coast (Maharashtra and Kerala). Alongside the fishing communities, relevant institutional stakeholders in fisheries were consulted for their perspectives on climate change and to assess the current policy/institutional/research framework to deal with the issue. This summary document presents the key findings from the study as well as suggested actions to reduce vulnerability and enhance the resilience of fishers.
Asia
Adaptation,Andhra Pradesh,Climate Change,Fishing Communities,India,Kerala,Maharashtra,resilience,Small Scale Fisheries
4
No
147
Salagrama, V. Climate Change and Fisheries, 2014: Perspectives from Small-Scale fishing communities in India on measures to protect lives and livelihoods. Summary document in Telugu of a 2011 study. ICSF, 2014
Documents and Reports
Climate change and adaptation,Climate change and fisheries India
The International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF), with financial support from Heinrich Böll Stiftung-India, undertook a study in 2011 with the aim to highlight the perspectives of fishing communities on climate change and its implications on their lives and livelihoods, and to highlight the importance of developing and implementing adaptation and mitigation measures through consultative processes to address their poverty and food-security issues. The study was undertaken in selected locations in four coastal states of India, two on the east coast (Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal) and two on the west coast (Maharashtra and Kerala). Alongside the fishing communities, relevant institutional stakeholders in fisheries were consulted for their perspectives on climate change and to assess the current policy/institutional/research framework to deal with the issue. This summary document presents the key findings from the study as well as suggested actions to reduce vulnerability and enhance the resilience of fishers.
Asia
Andhra Pradesh,Adaptation,Climate Change,Fishing Communities,India,Kerala,Maharashtra,resilience,Small Scale Fisheries
4
No